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Author Guidelines


The Annals of Health Research is a peer-reviewed journal of medical and health-related sciences meant to disseminate research works and ideas in the fields of medicine and allied health and social sciences with the ultimate goals of enhancing knowledge, improving practice and encouraging practice-centred research.




The Annals of Health Research is a bi-annual medical journal published in the months of June and December. The journal publishes original communications in the form of original research, high-quality case reports, short communications, letters to the editor and systematic reviews on clinical medicine (surgery, surgical specialities, paediatrics, internal medicine, public health, obstetrics and gynaecology), laboratory medicine and other specialities in the basic medical sciences, the allied health sciences and health-related social sciences. Articles in the form of Narrative Reviews, Personal Practice, Personal Opinions and Commentaries will only be invited from renowned experts in the relevant fields by the Editorial Board.




The operations of the editorial board of the journal are in conformity with the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) []. All manuscripts are subjected to an initial round of in-house editorial review and only manuscripts of satisfactory quality are processed further at the external peer review stage. The journal employs a double-blinded style of peer-review process usually conducted by experts in the relevant specialties preferably sourced from cognate institutions. Guided by the reports obtained from the editorial review and the peer review processes, the editorial board determines the suitability of every manuscript. Editorial decisions are usually communicated to the authors within eight weeks of submission.

Upon acceptance, the editorial board reserves the exclusive right to edit manuscripts (from the title to the references, including tables and figures) to meet the journal’s style prior to publishing. The journal abhors duplicate submission, data falsification, data fabrication and duplication of data already accepted by or published in other journals (even when certain cosmetic changes/additions are made). Plagiarism of any form, is also considered a major publication misconduct. The Editorial Board uses intrinsic mechanisms for detecting data falsifications, fabrications, duplications and plagiarism and where detected, such acts shall be officially addressed according to the provisions of the ICMJE. Such cases of publication frauds shall be treated with
outright rejection or retraction and the authors shallbe
blacklisted and shall be officially reported to their institutions.




The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal reserves the right to grant all authors, users and researchers, access to the materials published in the journal with the permission on request, to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.


The views, information and opinions expressed and presented in the articles and other materials published in the journal only reflect the submission of the respective authors. Neither the journal, the editorial team, the editorial board, other agents and representatives of the journal nor the publishers of the journal assumes liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness and validity of the contents of the materials so published in the journal. Therefore, only manuscripts accompanied with the signed Copyright Transfer/ Undertaking Form will be processed.

The Copyright Transfer/Undertaking Form to be signed by the corresponding author is as follows:


I, the undersigned, give an undertaking to the following effects with regards to my/our article entitled:


submitted for publication in the ANNALS OF HEALTH RESEARCH:

a) That I/We have read and understood the principles, policies and conditions stated in the Authors’ Guidelines;

b) That the article mentioned above has not been published or simultaneously submitted to or accepted for publication in any form, in any other journal;

c) That the authorship of this article will not be contested by anyone whose name(s) is/are not listed here;

d) That I/We contributed significantly towards the research study i.e., (i) conception and design (ii) analysis and interpretation of data (iii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and (iv) final approval of the version to be published;

e) That I/We hereby affirm that I/We shall duly inform the Editors if I/We have conflicts of interest which must be declared in agreement with the editorial policies of the journal;

f) That I/We hereby assign, convey and otherwise transfer all rights, title, interest, and copyright ownership of the aforementioned manuscript to the ANNALS OF HEALTH RESEARCH;

g) That the assignment of rights to the ANNALS OF HEALTH RESEARCH includes but is not exclusively limited to rights to claim copyright, edit, publish, reproduce, distribute copies and include in indexes or search databases;

h) That I concur that the authors of this manuscript should be listed in the sequence shown here:

(1) ...............................................................,

(2) .................................................................,


(4) .................................................................,


(6) ..................................................................




When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in the year 2000. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.




A statement declaring that the authors obtained informed written consent must be provided; this entails that the human subjects in a research are duly informed about the principles of research ethics which specify the gains, risks and freedom to participate or decline participation without punitive measures. For children aged above six years, assent must be obtained from them in addition to consent from the parent or guardian. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in written descriptions and photographs, unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and in which case, the patient (or parent, guardian or relation) gives written informed consent for the use in publication.




It is the policy of the journal that every manuscript should be accompanied with a statement declaring any conflict of interest. Reviewers and editors are also required to declare any potential conflict of interests with respect to a manuscript. Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships that inappropriately influence actions as a result of involvement in terms of employment, sponsorship, grants, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria and paid expert testimony by a body, agency, company or institution which has an interest or disinterest in the research theme of a manuscript. The potential for conflict of interest can exist whether or not an individual believes that the relationship affects his or her scientific judgment and therefore, must be declared. The extent to which the declared conflict may influence the research presented in the manuscript will be evaluated by the Editorial Board. The source of funding for the research and preparation of the manuscript should also be declared.




Please visit the journal management website ( for the details of registration for online manuscript submission and processing. All manuscripts must be written in British English. Manuscripts must be submitted through the journal management website at Manuscript submitters are advised to start by registering as users of the website and select roles as authors. Thereafter, the author should follow the online instructions on how to complete the process of submission. The manuscript submitter will, by default, serve as the corresponding author for the manuscript.


Due to the blinded peer review policy of the journal, the title page (which must contain all the names, affiliations and email addresses of the authors including acknowledgement) should be submitted as a supplementary file. The text of the manuscript should also be separately submitted as the main document of the manuscript.  

Manuscripts must be prepared in the Microsoft Word® (2003 and above edition) format. The pages should be consecutively numbered, starting with the abstract page, on the right side of the lower page margin. The manuscript should be presented in as concise form as possible, with neat double-space typewriting using the Times New Roman Font 12 without justification. The word count (excluding abstract, list of references, acknowledgement, tables and figures) for original research, case report, short communications and letters to the editor should not exceed 3000, 2000, 1000 and 750 words respectively. Paragraphs should be inserted using the tab function and not with manual spacing.


The manuscript should be arranged as follows:


Title Page

The title of the article should be short (not more than 12 words). The title page should include full names (NOT initials) of the author(s) with the surname capitalized, institutional affiliations and highest degree of each author and the institution to which the work should be credited. The journal allows not more than six authors on a manuscript except where a research group is involved. Where it is expedient to list more than six authors, this should be specifically justified in a correspondence to the journal editor at The name, complete postal address, telephone number, e-mail address and the ORCID number (obtainable from of the corresponding author should be clearly indicated. A short running title not exceeding 7 words must be provided. At the bottom of the title page, it is compulsory to indicate the: (1) contributions of individual authors to the research and manuscript [Please check the details on], (2) conflicts of interest and (3) sources of funding for the research and manuscript preparation.


Abstract & Keywords

The title of the manuscript should be written on top of the text containing the abstract. The abstract of all manuscripts (excluding Case Reports) must be structured (not more than 250 words) with the following subheadings: Background, Objectives, Methods, Results and Conclusions. The summary of Case Reports should not be more than 150 words and may not be structured. Conclusions and recommendations not related to the findings in the study and not found in the text of the articles should be avoided in the abstract. References are usually not required within the Abstract. A set of searchable keywords or specific phrases available on Index Medicus (4-7 in number) should be arranged alphabetically below the abstract.



This should be prepared in the IMRAD format: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion with the addition of a separate section on Conclusion.

Ethical considerations: For studies involving human subjects, the authors must indicate adherence to the relevant aspects of the Helsinki Declaration in terms of important ethical considerations including: (i) institutional ethical clearance to use human subjects or the permission to use institutional data (ii) informed written consents/ assent obtained from the human subjects for cross-sectional, case-control and prospective studies. Where Case Reports will include images bearing the face or other unconcealed identities of the subjects, a written permission must be obtained from the subject or the parent, guardian or close relations.



Acknowledgement is reserved for individuals who assisted in the research or manuscript writing but do not qualify to be listed as authors ( This section should be brief and formal.



The total number of References should not exceed 10 for Letters to the Editors and Short Communications, 20 for Case Reports (and 30 where review of the literature is included) and 30 for Original research. The Vancouver style of referencing is adopted by the journal. Within the text, references should be kept within square brackets, superscripted and must be inserted after punctuations. The cited literature must be numbered consecutively in the order of appearance. A list of references numbered consecutively according to the order of listing within the text should be placed at the end of the manuscript (after acknowledgement). Personal communication and non-scientific materials should be avoided on the list of references but may be so indicated in the appropriate part of the text. Articles that have been accepted for publication in another journal but yet to be published can be listed along with the references but with the name of the journal clearly stated with “In press” as an indicator.

The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style recommended by the Index Medicus. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to use the correct abbreviations of journal names. All the authors must be listed except where there are more than six (6) authors. In such cases as the latter, the first six authors should be listed followed by “et al” in italics.

The style of writing references is as follows:


For journals:

Somorin AO, Al-Harbi A, Subaity Y, Zaman AU. Calciphylaxis: case report and literature review. Afr J Med Med Sci 2002; 31(2): 175-178.


For books:


a.             Editor(s) as author (s)

Falase AO, Akinkugbe OO. Introduction to molecular biology: Technical development in molecular analysis and Gene therapy. In: Falase AO, Akinkugbe OO (Editors). A compendium of Clinical Medicine. 1st Edition. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited; 2000: 944-955.


b.             Chapter in a book

Burgess A. Nutritional disorders. In: Lucas AO, Gilles HM (Editors). Short Textbook of Public Health Medicine for the Tropics. 4th Edition. London: Book Power with Hodder Arnold; 2003: 261-282.


For Journal article on the Internet, the website, digital object identifier (doi) number and date of access must be indicated. An example is as follows:


Rajasingham R, Boulware DR. HIV care: ART adherence support and cryptococcal screening. Lancet 2015; 385(9983):2128-2129. Available at:, DOI: and accessed on April 12, 2015.



Tables should be typed separately and numbered consecutively using Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc) with the title of the table placed above the table. The table drawing command and table design functions on Microsoft Word should be used. Tabs function and unformatted lines should not be used to represent tables. The tables should bear the brief title and column headings should also be short. Units of measurement should be abbreviated and placed below the headings. Tables should appear at the end of the manuscript (after References) within the text file. Tables should not be submitted as photographs.




Figures and graphical representations should be submitted in editable formats (Microsoft Word® or Excel®) with the legends placed directly beneath the figure. Photographs and other illustrations should be submitted in JPEG or TIFF format (size not more than 1 MB). All the illustrations should be consecutively in Arabic numerals.




Only standard abbreviations are acceptable. The International System of Units (SI) is recommended for use within the text, Tables and Figures. Trade names of drugs should be avoided while the generic names are preferred.







When articles are accepted, galley proofs in marked PDF forms will be sent to the authors by email and must be returned to the editor within three weekdays. Corrections on the proof should be restricted to printer’s errors only and no substantial additions/deletions should be made. Changes in the names or sequence of the authors (by way of additions and deletions) are not permissible at the proof stage.



The journal currently charges the sum of Thirty Thousand Naira (or One Hundred and Twenty US Dollar, postage inclusive) as publication fees payable after the acceptance of the manuscript by the journal. When the number of formatted pages exceeds ten (10) as shown on the Galley Proof, additional Five Thousand Naira (or Fifty US Dollar) shall be charged for every next five pages. The journal provides access to the PDF versions of the articles published online on subscription at the rate of $10 per article. The subscription rates per volume are as follows: NGN6500 and USD550 for institutions within and outside Nigeria respectively as well as NGN3000 and USD450 for individuals within and outside Nigeria respectively. The Editor-in-Chief should be contacted at for the details of the methods of payment.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. Separate file desgnated as the "Title Page" containing all forms of identities of the authors (eg names, affiliations, institutions to which works should be attributed), personal details of the Correponding Author, contributions of authors and acknowledgement.
  2. Blinded Main Document (containing only the Title, Abstract, Text, References, Tables and Figures). There must be no personal detail (names or addresses) of the authors in this file.

Copyright Notice

The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers limited access to the materials published in the journal but with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes following permission to access.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Publication Fee and Subscription Rate: 120.00 (USD)

The journal charges the sum of Thirty Thousand Naira (NGN30,000) only as publication fees payable after the acceptance of the manuscript by the journal. The subscription rates per volume are as follows: NGN6500 and USD550 for institutions within and outside Nigeria respectively as well as NGN3000 and USD450 for individuals within and outside Nigeria respectively. The Editor-in-Chief should be contacted at for the details of methods of payment.