Lung functions abnormalities among auto mechanics in Ogbomoso, Nigeria: Clinical correlates and determinants
Background: Auto mechanics are exposed to various organic, inorganic and particulate matters as a result of their occupation. Determining the association between environmental pollutant and risk of lung function abnormalities among auto mechanics is important to prevent long-termCem>Objective: To describe lung function abnormalities and their determinants among auto mechanics in Ogbomoso, Nigeria.
Methods: One hundred and three auto mechanics were randomly selected from Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Their clinical and demographic data were obtained using a data form. Spirometry was performed using the CONTEC handheld Spirometer. The personal best values of three measurements FEV1, FVC and PEFR were determined. Lung function abnormalities were described according to standardized criteria.
Results: The mean (SD) age of the participants was 38.5 (11.9) years. The mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic pressure and mean duration of the job as auto mechanics were 128.7 (17.9) mmHg, 81.2 (11.4) mmHg and 20.2 (12.5) years respectively. Restrictive, obstructive and mixed lung function abnormalities were demonstrated among 53%, 10% and 2% respectively. The mean values of FEV1 and FVC reduced significantly with increasing job duration.
Conclusion: Lung function abnormalities occurred frequently among auto mechanics in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. There seemed to be a progressive decline in lung functions with age and duration of exposure to organic and inorganic pollutants by auto mechanics. Strict environmental and occupational safety measures may limit the hazards associated with poor air quality and other chemical/physical hazards among auto mechanics in Nigeria.
2. Mirabelli MC, Preisser JS, Loehr LR, et al. Lung function decline over 25 years of follow-up among black and white adults in the ARIC study cohort. Respir Med. 2016; 113: 57-64.
3. Sunyer J, Zock JP, Kromhout H, Garcia-Esteban R, Radon K, Jarvis D, et al. Occupational Group of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Lung function decline, chronic bronchitis, and occupational exposures in young adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005; 172(9): 1139-45.
4. de Meer G, Kerkhof M, Kromhout H, Schouten JP, Heederik D. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study. Environ Health 2004; 3(1): 6.
5. Jaén A, Zock JP, Kogevinas M, Ferrer A, Marín A. Occupation, smoking, and chronic obstructive respiratory disorders: a cross-sectional study in an industrial area of Catalonia, Spain. Environ Health 2006; 5: 2.
6. Li J, Agarwal SK, Alonso A, Blecker S, Chamberlain AM, London SJ, et al. Airflow obstruction, lung function, and incidence of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation. 2014; 129(9): 971-80. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.004050.
7. Johnson LS, Juhlin T, Engström G, Nilsson PM. Reduced forced expiratory volume is associated with increased incidence of atrial fibrillation: the Malmo Preventive Project. Europace 2014; 16(2): 182-8. doi: 10.1093/europace/eut255.
8. Fell AK, Aasen T, Kongerud J. Work related COPD. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2014; 134(22): 2158-63. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.14.0255.
9. Torén K, Järvholm B. Effect of occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dust, and fumes on COPD mortality risk among Swedish construction workers: a longitudinal cohort study. Chest 2014; 145(5): 992-7. doi: 10.1378/chest.13-1429.
10. Torén K, Qvarfordt I, Bergdahl IA, Järvholm B. Increased mortality from infectious pneumonia after occupational exposure to inorganic dust, metal fumes and chemicals. Thorax 2011; 66(11): 992-6. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200707,
11. Torén K, Bergdahl IA, Nilsson T, Järvholm B. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Occup Environ Med 2007; 64(8): 515-9.
12. Omokhodion FO. Environmental hazards of automobile mechanics in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med 1999; 18(1): 69-72.
13. Babalola OO, Ojo LO, Aderemi MO. Lead levels in some biological samples of auto-mechanics in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2005; 42(6): 401-3.
14. Ana GR, Odeshi TA, Sridhar MK, Ige MO. Outdoor respirable particulate matter and the lung function status of residents of selected communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Perspect Public Health. 2014; 134(3): 169-75. doi: 10.1177/1757913913494152.
15. Schwela D. Air pollution and health in urban areas. Rev Environ Health 2000; 15(1-2): 13-42.
16. Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, et al.; International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; International Association for the Study of Obesity. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 2009; 120(16): 1640-5. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644
17. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redan J, Zanchetti A, Bohm M, et al. for the Task Force Members. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2013; 31(7): 1281-357. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000431740.32696.cc
18. Eckel RH, Cornier MA. Update on the NCEP ATP-III emerging cardiometabolic risk factors. BMC Med 2014; 12: 115. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-12-115.
19. Haynes JM, Kaminsky DA. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society acceptability criteria for spirometry: asking too much or not enough? Respir Care 2015; 60(5): e113-114. doi: 10.4187/respcare.04061.
20. Ige OM, Onadeko OB. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function of the sawmillers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 2000; 29(2): 101-4.
21. Ige OM, Awoyemi OB. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function of the bakery workers in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2002; 21(4): 316-8.
22. Okwari OO, Antail AB, Owu DU, Peters EJ, Osim EE. Lung function status of workers exposed to wood dust in timber markets in Calabar, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 2005; 34(2): 141-5.
23. Zuskin E, Mustajbegovic J, Schachter EN. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in bus drivers and mechanics. Am J Ind Med 1994; 26(6): 771-83.
24. Ronchese F, Bovenzi M. Occupational risks and health-related disorders in transport drivers. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2012; 34(3): 352-9.
25. Chattopadhyay BP, Alam J, Roychowdhury A. Pulmonary function abnormalities associated with exposure to automobile exhaust in a diesel bus garage and roads. Lung 2003; 181(5): 291-302.
26. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2015; 385: 117–71.
27. Burney P, Jithoo A, Kato B, et al. Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Study. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality and prevalence: the associations with smoking and poverty–a BOLD analysis. Thorax 2014; 69: 465–73.
28. Burney PG, Hooper R. Forced vital capacity, airway obstruction and survival in a general population sample from the USA. Thorax 2011; 66:49–54.
29. Redlich CA, Tarlo SM, Hankinson JL, Townsend MC, Eschenbacher WL, Von Essen SG, et al. American Thoracic Society Committee on Spirometry in the Occupational Setting. Official American Thoracic Society technical standards: spirometry in the occupational setting. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014; 189(8): 983-93.
Copyright (c) 2018 Annals of Health Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.