Neonatal macrosomia and associated morbidities in Sagamu, Nigeria
Background: The incidence of neonatal macrosomia is on the increase in many parts of the world. The impact of the condition on baby and child health has not received adequate research attention.
Objective: To determine the prevalence, baby and maternal characteristics, the pattern of neonatal morbidity and perinatal outcome of macrosomia.
Methods: A retrospective study of all singleton deliveries with birth weight ≥ 4.0 kg was conducted at a tertiary facility in the south-western part of Nigeria between January 2013 and December 2014.
Results: Eighty-eight newborn babies were macrosomic out of 1854 deliveries, resulting in a prevalence rate of 4.7%. The male-to-female ratio was 1: 0.54, while the mean (±SD) birth weight was 4.23 ± 0.29 kg. There was no significant difference in the mean birth weights of the male and female babies (t = 1.24, p = 0.218). The mean maternal age was 31.7 ± 5.1 years. Multiparous mothers had the highest proportion of macrosomic babies, while a majority of mothers (77.3%) were either overweight or obese. One-minute Apgar score <7 was observed among 28 (31.8%) babies. Twenty-three (26.1%) babies were hospitalized for further management. Birth asphyxia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia were the leading morbidities. The perinatal mortality rate for macrosomic babies was 102.2 per 1000 total births.
Conclusion: The incidence of neonatal macrosomia is relatively low in our study population but falls within the range of prevalence rates reported from other parts of the country. Birth asphyxia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinemia are common morbidities among affected babies.
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