Bacteriological analysis of potable water in areas with reported cholera outbreaks in Ogun, Oyo and Lagos States, Nigeria

  • M A Deji-Agboola Olabisi Onabanjo University
  • O Museliu Olabisi Onabanjo University
  • F A Olajubu Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko
  • O A Osinupebi Olabisi Onabanjo University
  • A O Idowu Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital
Keywords: Coliform, Cholera, MPN, Water, Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Abstract

Background: Cholera outbreaks, reported yearly in Nigeria, are a public health concern and transmission is attributed to drinking of contaminated water and poor sanitation.

Objective: To conduct a bacteriological analysis of potable water in areas with reported cholera outbreaks in Ogun, Lagos and Oyo States.

Methods: Water samples collected from the study areas were examined physically, cultured in MacConkey broth and Alkaline peptone water to determine the most probable number (MPN) of Coliforms and isolate Vibro species respectively. Bacteria were cultured from the broths and were identified using standard methods.

Results: All the other water samples examined were colourless, odourless, tasteless and lack particles except the well water which had yellowish brown colouration (4; 8%) and contained visible particles (5; 30%). The presumptive total coliform count ranged between < 3 and 1,100 MPN /100ml. Enterobacter gergoviae  (34; 47.2%), Escherichia coli (16; 22.2%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7; 9.7%), Sarratia liquefaciens (6; 8.3%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus  (5; 6.9%), Citrobacter diversus  (2; 2.8), Klebsiella oxytoca  (1; 1.4%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (1; 1.4%) were isolated from 33.5% of the water samples. The level of contamination of water sources within the different study areas was significant (p<0.001). Vibrio cholerae was not isolated, but Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 5 (10%) of the well water samples. Thermo-tolerant Coliforms were also identified from some samples.

Conclusion: The well water samples were grossly contaminated with coliform bacteria and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and should be treated before drinking.

Author Biographies

M A Deji-Agboola, Olabisi Onabanjo University

Medical Microbiology and Parasitology

SENIOR LECTURER

O Museliu, Olabisi Onabanjo University

Medical Microbiology and Parasitology

LABORATORY SCIENTIST

F A Olajubu, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko

Department of Microbiology

SENIOR LECTURER

O A Osinupebi, Olabisi Onabanjo University

Medical Microbiology and Parasitology

SENIOR LECTURER

A O Idowu, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital

Heamtology and Blood Transfusion

LABORATORY SCIENTIST

References

1. World Health Organization/UNICEF. Progress on drinking-water and sanitation: 2012
update. Geneva, World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation, 2012. Available from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/ 2012/9789280646320_ eng_full_text.pdf, accessed July 10, 2014.

2. Dufour A, Snozzi M, Koster W, Bartram J, Ronchi E, Fawtrell L. Assessing microbial safety of drinking water, improving approaches and methods, WHO/OECD. 2003; 11. Available: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/9241546301/en/. Accessed July 10, 2014

3. World Health Organisation. Cholera 2013. Weekly Epidemiological Record 2014; 89 (31): 345-56. http://www.who.int/wer Accessed June 24 2016

4. Ojo T. Cholera outbreak in Nigeria: Information Nigeria. www.informationng.com/2013/11 Accessed June 24 2016.

5. World Health Organisation. Cholera 2015. Weekly Epidemiological Record 2016; 91 (38) 433–40. http://www.who.int/wer

6. World Development Report 1994: Infrastructure for Development. World Development Indicators. Infrastructural data. Oxford University Press USA 139. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/5977/WDR%201994%20-%20English.pdf?sequence=2. retrieved 29 May 2017

7. Olajubu FA, Deji-Agboola AM. Bacteriological Assessment of Pure Water Samples
in Ogun State of Nigeria. Niger J Health Biomed Sci 2007; 6(2): 45-8.

8. Oluwafemi F, Oluwole ME. Microbiological Examination of Sachet Water Due to a Cholera Outbreak in Ibadan, Nigeria. Open J Med Microbiol 2012; 2: 115-20

9. Cheesbrough, M. Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 1993. pp 206-224.

10. Bartram J, Pedley S. Water Quality Monitoring - A Practical Guide to the Design and Implementation of Freshwater Quality Studies and Monitoring Programmes. Edited In Jamie Bartram and Richard Balance. Published on behalf of United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization UNEP/WHO 1996; 1- 27

11. Agbabiaka TO, Sulu IO. Bacteriological assessment of selected borehole water samples in Ilorin metropolis. Int J Appl Biol Res 2010; 2(2): 31-7.

12. Payment P, Waite M, Dufour A. Introducing Parameters for the assessment of Drinking Water Quality. In Assessing Microbial safety of Drinking Water. Improving Approaches and Methods. Publish on behalf of the World Health Organization and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development by IWA Publishing (2003)

13. Nigerian Industrial Standard/Standards Organization of Nigeria. Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality. NIS 554: 2007. https://www.unicef.org/nigeria/ng_publications_Nigerian_Standard_for_Drinking_Water_Quality.pdf Retrieved December 14, 2016

14. Akinyemi KO, Oyefolu AOB, Salu OB, Adewale OA, Fasure AK. Bacterial pathogens associated with tap and well waters in Lagos, Nigeria. East Cent Afr J Surg 2006; 11(1): 110-17.

15. Ayantobo OO, Oluwasanya GO, Idowu AA, Eruola AO. Water quality evaluation of hand-dug wells in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontiers Research: Agriculture Veterinary 2013; 13(10): 20-7.

16. Adejuwon JO, Mbuk CJ. Biological and physiochemical properties of shallow wells in Ikorodu town, Lagos Nigeria. J Geol Min Res 2011; 3(6): 161-168.

17. Jong-Chul P, Min SL, Dong-Wook H, Dong HL, Bong JP, In-Seop L, Masakazu U, Maki A, Kosuke T. Inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Effluent Seawater by Alternating-Current Treatment. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70(3): 1833–35.

18. Environment Agency. The microbiology of drinking water - part-1-water quality and public health: methods for the examination of water and associated materials. http://www.uk.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment ̲ data/file/316838/mdwpart1. 1996. Date accessed: 22nd November, 2014

19. Junaid SA. Agina SE. Sanitary survey of drinking water quality in Plateau State, Nigeria. Brit Biotechnol J 2014; 4(12): 1313-20.

20. Odafivwotu O. The impact of pipe distribution network on the quality of tap water in
Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. Am J Water Res 2014; 2(5): 110-17.
Published
2017-12-01
Section
Articles