Prevalence of microalbuminuria among adults with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus at OOUTH, Sagamu
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious global epidemic. The menace of this chronic disease is attributable to its chronic complications which threaten both the world economy and life expectancy, especially in Sub- Saharan Africa. Nephropathy is a complication of Diabetes mellitus and a leading cause of End Stage Renal Disease.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria as well as the effects of co-morbidities on the pattern of microalbuminuria among adults with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A total of 325 adults with Diabetes mellitus and 100 controls without Diabetes mellitus were studied. The subjects with diabetes were classified into four groups ([i] diabetes only, [ii] diabetes with hypertension, [iii] diabetes with obesity and [iv] diabetes with hypertension and obesity). Urinary protein, microalbuminuria, fasting plasma glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured using standard methods.
Results: The overall prevalence of microalbuminuria was 35.1% in the diabetic population compared to 8.0% in the control group. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in the various diabetic subgroups were as follows: 30.3% (diabetes only), 43.1% (diabetes with hypertension), 37.0% (diabetes with obesity) and 44.6% (diabetes with hypertension and obesity). The fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c were statistically significantly higher in the diabetic population than the control group. This indicated that there is a poor glycaemic control in the diabetic population and hence a possible cause of diabetic nephropathy.
Conclusion: The risk of diabetic nephropathy was significant in the study population. The presence of one or more co-morbidities and poor glycaemic control increased the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy.
International Diabetic Federation (2011) Diabetes: The Global Burden (5th ed.,). Diabetic Atlas, 2011.
Ogbera, A.O. and Ekpebegh, C. (2014). Diabetic Mellitus in Nigeria: the past, present and future. World J. Diabetes; 5 (6) : 905 – 911.
Wang, C., Li, C., Gong, W. and Lou T. (2013). New Urinary Biomarkers for diabetic kidney disease. Biomarkers Research, 1 (9) : 1 – 4, DOI : 10.1186/2050-777-1-1-9.
Alebiosu, C.O. and Ayodele, O.E. (2006). The increasing prevalence of diabetic nephropathy as a cause of end stage renal disease in Nigeria.Trop. Doct ; 36 (4) : 218 – 9.
Alebiosu, C.O. and Kadiri, S. (2001). Clinical review of diabetic nephropathy in Ibadan, Nigeria. A prospective study. Nigerian mediacal practitioner, 40 (1-2): 15 – 17
Alebiosu, C. O. (2003). Clinical diabetic nephropathy in a tropical African population. West Afri J med; 22 (2):152 – 5
Maduka, I. C., Neboh, E. E.and Kwubiri, U. N. (2009). The Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients. European Journal of Scientific Research. 26 (2) : 255 – 259.
Chukwuebuni, N.J., Digban, A.K. Chukwuani, U., and Yovwin, D.G. (2016). Prevalence and risk factors of Microalbuminuria among type 2 Diabetics: A hospital – based study from warri, Nigeria. Sahed medical journal; 19 (1) ; 16 – 20
Lebovitz, H.E. (2001). Insulin resistance: definition and consequences http://www.thieme-connect /dol/dol? 10.10 55/5-2001-185 76.
Hart, J.T (1992). Rule of Halves: Implications of increasing diagnosis and reducing dropout for future worked and prescribing costs in primary care. Br. J Gen. pract; 42:116 – 9.
Chinenye, S. and Ogbera, A. O (2013). Socio cultural aspects of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. J. Soc. Health : 1 (1) : 15 – 21
Joslin Diabetes Centre (2016). Stay healthy with diabetes.
Rowe, D.J., Dawnay, A. and Watts, G.F. (1990): Microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus review and recommendations for the measurement of albumin in urine. Ann.Clin: Biochem. 27 (4) : 297- 312.
Hasslacher, C.H., Ritz, E., Wahl, P., and Michae, C. (1989). Similar risk of nephropathy in patients with type 1 or type II diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 4: 859 – 863.
Burtis ,C.A. and Ashwood, ER. (1994). Renal function and Nitrogen metabolites: Dipstick testing. Tietz Textbook of clinical chemistry (3rd ed., pp 1261 – 1262).
Barham, D. and Trinder, P. (1972) : Analyst; 97: 142.
Ibadin, M.O., Onunu, A., Unigbe, E. (2004). Microalbuminuria in adolescent/young adult offsprings of hypertensive Nigeria adults – A preliminary report. Nig. J clin pract; 7 : 60 – 64.
Okpere, A.N., Anochie, I.C. and Eke, F.U. (2012). Prevalence of Microalbuminuria among secondary school children. Afr. Health Sci; 12 (2): 140 – 147.
Chinenye, S. and Young, E.E. (2011). State of Diabetes care in Nigeria: A review. Niger Health Journal ; 11 : 101 – 9
Bouaziz, A., Zidi, I., Zidi, N., minif, W., and Zinelabidine, H.T. (2012). Nephropathy following Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in Tunisian population. West Indian med. J; 61 (9) : 881-9
Kundu, D., Roy, A., mandal, T., Bandyopadhyay, V., Ghosh, F. and Ray, D. (2013). Relation of Microalbuminuria to glycosylated haemoglobin and duration of type 2 diabetes. Nigerian Journal of clinical practice; 16 (2) : 216 – 220.
Copyright (c) 2018 Annals of Health Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.