Over-nutrition among primary school pupils in a semi-urban Local Government Area, South-western Nigeria

  • Tamra Iyabo Runsewe-Abiodun Department of Paediatrics, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7391-5218
  • Oluwafolahan Sholeye Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Abiodun Alaje Department of Chemical Pathology, ObafemiAwolowo University,Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Olatunbosun O Olawale Department of Chemical Pathology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Olatunde Odusan Department of Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria
Keywords: Dietary Pattern, Food Frequency Score, Dietary Diversity Score, Nutritional status, Primary school, Over-nutrition



Background: Studies from the developing countries suggest that childhood obesity is more prevalent in the urban settings. The search for childhood overweight/obesity (over-nutrition) needs to go beyond the urban into the semi-urban and rural areas.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of over-nutrition and the associated factor among primary school pupils in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytic study of pupils of 15 schools (10 public and 5 private) using the multistage random sampling and the proportionate sampling techniques. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire, data on physical activity, household possessions, dietary practices and relevant physical findings were obtained.

Results: A total of 422 pupils were studied; the age ranged between 18 and 192 months with a mean of 107.2 ± 36.4 months. The prevalence of Overweight/Obesity (Over-nutrition) was 6.4% with male predominance: 8.1% vs 4.4% without statistical significance (p = 0.19). Over-nutrition was significantly more prevalent among pupils aged <5 years and in the pupils of private schools (p = 0.000 and p = 0.007 respectively) and significantly related to the Dietary Diversity Score (p = 0.0001). Over-nutrition was more frequent among children whose parents had university education and were middle level civil servants without statistical significance. (p = 0.66, 0.19 respectively). Group physical activity was low in 96.3% and Food Frequency Score was poor in 87.5% of the overweight/obese pupils. Female gender, long duration of breastfeeding and delay in weaning significantly correlated with childhood over-nutrition.

Conclusions: Over-nutrition is not uncommon in the semi-urban Nigerian setting. The early life feeding practices, quality of the child’s diet and physical activities appear to be important contributors to childhood over-nutrition in this setting.



Ejike CE. Child and Adolescent Obesity In Nigeria: A Narrative Review of Prevalence Data From Three Decades (1983-2013). J Obes Metab Res. 2014;1:171-179.

Ogden CL, Carroll MD, kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States. JAMA. 2014: 311(8): 806-814

Bethesda MD. Disease and Conditions Index: What Are Overweight and Obesity. National Institute of Health, National Heart, Lung and blood institute. 2010

World health Organisation (2009) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, Switzerland

Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH. Overweight in children and adolescents: Patholophysiology, consequences, prevention and treatment. Circulation. 2005. 111:1999-2002.

Poskitt EM. Countries in transition: Underweight to obesity non-stop? Ann Trop Paediatr 2009;29:1-11. 07030586618. 68, Ihaama road GRA

Amidu N, Owiredu WKBA, Saaka M, Quaye M, Wanwan M, Kunibea PD et al. Determinants of Childhood Obesity Among Basic School chidren Aged 6-12years in Tamale Metropolis. J Med and Biomed Sc. 2013;2(3):26-34.]

H Mohammed F Vuvor. Prevalence of childhood Overweight/Obesity in Basic School in Accra. Ghana Med J 2012; 46 (3): 124-127]

Akinpelu AO, Oyewole OO, Oritogun KS. Overweight and Obesity: Does it Occur In Nigerian Adolescents in an Urban Community?. Int J of Biomed and Health Sc. 2008.4;11-17.

Mustapha RA, Sanusi RA. Oveweight and Obesity among in-school Adolescents in Ondo Stste, Southwest Nigeria. Afr J of Biomed Research. 2013:16(3).

Adedayo O, sabageh, Ebenezer. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adolescents in Ile Ife Osun State, Nigeria Using BMI and Waist Hip Ratio. NMJ.2013:54(3);153-156.

Stella KMuthuri, CE Francis, LM Wachira, AG Leblanc, M Sampson, VO Onywera and MS Tremblay. PLoS One 2014. 0(3):e92846).

Bamidele B, Oyenike E and Olusegun TA. Dietary pattern and nutritional status of primary school pupils in a South West Nigerian State African J of food Science. 2016; 10(10), 203-212.

WHO Simplified tables 2007. www.who.int/childgrowth/standards(accessed 11/08/2017)

Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE and Donen RM . Physical activity questionnaire –Elemntray school . www.hsf.org/uploads/physical activity/physical AQ manual.pdf(accessed 11/08/2017)

National Population Commission/ICF International 2014. Nigerian Demographic Health Survey 2013. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR293/FR293.pdf 20142013 (accessed 11/08/2017)

Jee-Seon Shim, Kyungwon Oh and Hyeon Chang Kim (2014) Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiol Health 36, e2014009.

Technical note 10 available from URL ww.ipc-undp.org/pub/eng/tp08/technicalnote10.pdf

Odetunde OI, Neboh EE, Chinawa JM, Okafor HU, Odetunde OA, EzenwosuOU and Ekwochi U. Elevated arterial blood pressure (EBP) and body masss iNdex among Nigerian Pre-school children population . BMC 2014;14:64.

Mohammed H, Vuvour F. Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity im Basic school in Accra. Ghana Med J 20122; 46(3):124-1227

Adegoke SA, Olowu WA, Adeodu OO, Elusiyan JB, Dededke IO. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2009; 28(4):216-221

Fetuga MB, Ogunlesi TA, Alabi AD, Adekanmbi AF. Nutritional status of Semi-urban Nigerian school children using the 2007 WHO Reference population. West Afr J Med 2011; 30(5):331-336

Sebanjo IO and Osikoya KA. Physical activity and BMI of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria. World J Pediatr 2010;6(3):217-222

Danladi I musa, Abel L Toriola, Makama A Monyeki and Badamassi Lawal. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Benue State Nigeria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2012; 17 (11):1369-75

Moraeus L, Lissner L, Yngue A, E Poortviet, Al-Ansari L and Sjoberg A. Multilevel inferences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child’s lifestyle. Int J Obes 2012; 36(7):969-76

Sjoberg A, Moraeus L, Yngve A, Poorlyliet E, AL-Ansari U, Lissner L. Overweight an Obesity in a representative sample of school children-expolring the urban-rural ggradient in Sweden. Obese Rev 2011; 12 (5): 305-14.

Hunsberg M, IDEFCS consortium. Early feeding practices and family structure: associations with overweight in children. Proct Nutr Soc 2014; 73(1):132-6

Amirat Alli El-Sabely, Tork HMM and Hussein YE. Comparative study of nutritional status and dietary habits of childrenfrom public and private primary schools in Zagazig city, Egypt Journal of Nursssing health Sciences 2013.3(1):47-52.

Runsewe-Abiodun TI, Bondi FS, Alabi AD and Taqi AM Infant and young child Feeding Practices in the East end of Freetown, Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research 2016;8 (1) :4-11

Comte M, Hobin E, Majumdar SR, Plotnikoff RC, Ball GD, McGavock J. Patterns of weekday and weekend physical activity in youth in 2 Canadian provinces. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.2013;38:115–119. Applied Physiol Metab 2013; 38(2):115-119

Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int. J Pediatr Obes 2006;1:11-25.

Original Research