Over-nutrition among primary school pupils in a semi-urban Local Government Area, South-western Nigeria
Background: Studies from the developing countries suggest that childhood obesity is more prevalent in the urban settings. The search for childhood overweight/obesity (over-nutrition) needs to go beyond the urban into the semi-urban and rural areas.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of over-nutrition and the associated factor among primary school pupils in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytic study of pupils of 15 schools (10 public and 5 private) using the multistage random sampling and the proportionate sampling techniques. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire, data on physical activity, household possessions, dietary practices and relevant physical findings were obtained.
Results: A total of 422 pupils were studied; the age ranged between 18 and 192 months with a mean of 107.2 ± 36.4 months. The prevalence of Overweight/Obesity (Over-nutrition) was 6.4% with male predominance: 8.1% vs 4.4% without statistical significance (p = 0.19). Over-nutrition was significantly more prevalent among pupils aged <5 years and in the pupils of private schools (p = 0.000 and p = 0.007 respectively) and significantly related to the Dietary Diversity Score (p = 0.0001). Over-nutrition was more frequent among children whose parents had university education and were middle level civil servants without statistical significance. (p = 0.66, 0.19 respectively). Group physical activity was low in 96.3% and Food Frequency Score was poor in 87.5% of the overweight/obese pupils. Female gender, long duration of breastfeeding and delay in weaning significantly correlated with childhood over-nutrition.
Conclusions: Over-nutrition is not uncommon in the semi-urban Nigerian setting. The early life feeding practices, quality of the child’s diet and physical activities appear to be important contributors to childhood over-nutrition in this setting.
Ejike CE. Child and Adolescent Obesity In Nigeria: A Narrative Review of Prevalence Data From Three Decades (1983-2013). J Obes Metab Res. 2014;1:171-179.
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States. JAMA. 2014: 311(8): 806-814
Bethesda MD. Disease and Conditions Index: What Are Overweight and Obesity. National Institute of Health, National Heart, Lung and blood institute. 2010
World health Organisation (2009) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, Switzerland
Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH. Overweight in children and adolescents: Patholophysiology, consequences, prevention and treatment. Circulation. 2005. 111:1999-2002.
Poskitt EM. Countries in transition: Underweight to obesity non-stop? Ann Trop Paediatr 2009;29:1-11. 07030586618. 68, Ihaama road GRA
Amidu N, Owiredu WKBA, Saaka M, Quaye M, Wanwan M, Kunibea PD et al. Determinants of Childhood Obesity Among Basic School chidren Aged 6-12years in Tamale Metropolis. J Med and Biomed Sc. 2013;2(3):26-34.]
H Mohammed F Vuvor. Prevalence of childhood Overweight/Obesity in Basic School in Accra. Ghana Med J 2012; 46 (3): 124-127]
Akinpelu AO, Oyewole OO, Oritogun KS. Overweight and Obesity: Does it Occur In Nigerian Adolescents in an Urban Community?. Int J of Biomed and Health Sc. 2008.4;11-17.
Mustapha RA, Sanusi RA. Oveweight and Obesity among in-school Adolescents in Ondo Stste, Southwest Nigeria. Afr J of Biomed Research. 2013:16(3).
Adedayo O, sabageh, Ebenezer. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adolescents in Ile Ife Osun State, Nigeria Using BMI and Waist Hip Ratio. NMJ.2013:54(3);153-156.
Stella KMuthuri, CE Francis, LM Wachira, AG Leblanc, M Sampson, VO Onywera and MS Tremblay. PLoS One 2014. 0(3):e92846).
Bamidele B, Oyenike E and Olusegun TA. Dietary pattern and nutritional status of primary school pupils in a South West Nigerian State African J of food Science. 2016; 10(10), 203-212.
WHO Simplified tables 2007. www.who.int/childgrowth/standards(accessed 11/08/2017)
Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE and Donen RM . Physical activity questionnaire –Elemntray school . www.hsf.org/uploads/physical activity/physical AQ manual.pdf(accessed 11/08/2017)
National Population Commission/ICF International 2014. Nigerian Demographic Health Survey 2013. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR293/FR293.pdf 20142013 (accessed 11/08/2017)
Jee-Seon Shim, Kyungwon Oh and Hyeon Chang Kim (2014) Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies. Epidemiol Health 36, e2014009.
Technical note 10 available from URL ww.ipc-undp.org/pub/eng/tp08/technicalnote10.pdf
Odetunde OI, Neboh EE, Chinawa JM, Okafor HU, Odetunde OA, EzenwosuOU and Ekwochi U. Elevated arterial blood pressure (EBP) and body masss iNdex among Nigerian Pre-school children population . BMC 2014;14:64.
Mohammed H, Vuvour F. Prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity im Basic school in Accra. Ghana Med J 20122; 46(3):124-1227
Adegoke SA, Olowu WA, Adeodu OO, Elusiyan JB, Dededke IO. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria. West Afr J Med 2009; 28(4):216-221
Fetuga MB, Ogunlesi TA, Alabi AD, Adekanmbi AF. Nutritional status of Semi-urban Nigerian school children using the 2007 WHO Reference population. West Afr J Med 2011; 30(5):331-336
Sebanjo IO and Osikoya KA. Physical activity and BMI of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria. World J Pediatr 2010;6(3):217-222
Danladi I musa, Abel L Toriola, Makama A Monyeki and Badamassi Lawal. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Benue State Nigeria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2012; 17 (11):1369-75
Moraeus L, Lissner L, Yngue A, E Poortviet, Al-Ansari L and Sjoberg A. Multilevel inferences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child’s lifestyle. Int J Obes 2012; 36(7):969-76
Sjoberg A, Moraeus L, Yngve A, Poorlyliet E, AL-Ansari U, Lissner L. Overweight an Obesity in a representative sample of school children-expolring the urban-rural ggradient in Sweden. Obese Rev 2011; 12 (5): 305-14.
Hunsberg M, IDEFCS consortium. Early feeding practices and family structure: associations with overweight in children. Proct Nutr Soc 2014; 73(1):132-6
Amirat Alli El-Sabely, Tork HMM and Hussein YE. Comparative study of nutritional status and dietary habits of childrenfrom public and private primary schools in Zagazig city, Egypt Journal of Nursssing health Sciences 2013.3(1):47-52.
Runsewe-Abiodun TI, Bondi FS, Alabi AD and Taqi AM Infant and young child Feeding Practices in the East end of Freetown, Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research 2016;8 (1) :4-11
Comte M, Hobin E, Majumdar SR, Plotnikoff RC, Ball GD, McGavock J. Patterns of weekday and weekend physical activity in youth in 2 Canadian provinces. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.2013;38:115–119. Applied Physiol Metab 2013; 38(2):115-119
Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int. J Pediatr Obes 2006;1:11-25.
Copyright (c) 2018 Annals of Health Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.