Prevalence of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Among Women with Diabetes mellitus in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Background: Diabetes mellitus predisposes to both bacterial and fungal infections, includingCandida species. Hitherto, Candida albicans has been identified as the most common opportunistic pathogen amongpatients with diabetes mellitus. More recently, Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species are increasingly recognized as the cause of candida infections.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) as well as the species of Candida frequently identified among women with diabetes mellitus in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 213 women diagnosed with diabetes mellitus was carried out in 2010. Direct microscopy and fungal cultures of high vaginal swabs were done using Sabouraud--Dextrose Agar and ChromAgar.
Results: The prevalence of VVC among 213 women with diabetic mellitus was 18.8% (40/213). The predominant Candida species isolated were Candida glabrata (30.0%), C. albicans and C. tropicalis (17.5%) each and C. Gulliermondii (15.0%). Diabetic women had higher rates of moderate and heavy growth of Candida density. Twenty-nine (72.5%) patients with candidiasis were symptomatic and the most common symptom was vulval/vaginal itching 48.3% (14/29).
Conclusion: This study put the prevalence rate of VVC among women with diabetes mellitus in Ibadan at 18.8%. The most common Candida species isolated was C.glabrata and majority of the patients were symptomatic.
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