Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Risky Sexual Behaviours among Clients Attending HIV Testing Service in Ogun State, Nigeria


  • AA Salako
  • OE Amoran
  • OE Okere
  • KS Oritogun



Background: HIV testing services (HTS) are a component of HIV prevention and care programs in developed countries and have proven to be a cost-effective way of monitoring the disease, reducing risky behaviours and leading patients to other services.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and risky behavioural factors associated with HIV among the attendees of HIV testing services in a part of Ogun state, Nigeria.

Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of HTS clients in health facilities within Ogun State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used for data collection using a pretested, close-ended, interviewer-administered questionnaire.

Results: A total of 800 respondents with a mean age of 32.57±10.39 years were surveyed. The prevalence of HIV was 1.6%. The majority (93.6%) of the respondents were sexually experienced. The percentage tested previously among study participants was 5.0%. This significantly comprised those below the age of 18 years (X2 = 22.01, p = 0.0001) and female respondents (Χ2 = 4.84, p = 0.028). Only 21 (2.6%) have had unprotected sex with a casual partner. Significantly more of the female respondent had been involved in this risky sexual behaviour (X2 = 4.52, p = 0.034). Only 7 (0.9%) had sex with multiple sexual partners in the last three months, and 17 (2.1%) were positive for symptomatic STI screening.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV was low to be 1.6%, and the percentage tested previously was 5.0%. The practice of free HIV screening should be maintained to encourage more people to undergo the test.


UNAIDS Report on the global AIDS Epidemic 2017.

Kaiser Family Foundation. The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic. US: Kaiser Family Foundation; 2021.

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2010–2016. Available at: Published February 2019. Accessed 09 April 2019.

World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021.

Shubber Z, Mills EJ, Nachega JB, Vreeman R, Freitas M, Bock P, et al. Patient-Reported Barriers to Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS Med 2016; 13.

UNAIDS Report Global AIDS campaigns Accessed 20 November 2021.

Salako A, Jeminusi OA, Osinupebi OA, Sholeye OO, Abiodun OA, Kuponiyi OT. Characteristics of clients accessing HIV counselling and testing services in a tertiary hospital in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2013; 15: 391-396.

Tewabe T, Destaw B, Admassu M, Abera B. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counselling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: a case-control study. Ethiopian J Health Dev 2012; 26: 16-21.

Kteily-Hawa R, Hawa AC, Gogolishvili D, Al Akel, Andruszkiewicz N, Vijayanathan H, et al. Understanding the epidemiological HIV risk factors and underlying risk context for youth residing in or originating from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: A scoping review of the literature. PLoS One. 2022; 17: e0260935. 10.1371/journal.pone.0260935.

Population Bureau. Improving the Reproductive Health of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Youth. Washington, DC. 2014. http://www.ncbi.n/

Donkor E. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Voluntary Counselling and Testing for HIV among university students. Glob Adv Res J Soc Sci 2012; 1: 41-46.

Charles LE, Loomis D, Demissie Z. Occupational Hazards Experienced by Cleaning Workers and Janitors: A Review of the Epidemiologic Literature. Work 2009; 34: 105–116.

Tadesse AW, Chernet W, Ahmed O, Tadesse W. HIV/AIDS Preventive Practice and Associated actors among Female sex Workers in Afar Region, Ethiopia: A Community Based Study. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2020; 30: 45-54.

Ikpim EM, Edet UA, Bassey AU, Asuguo OA, Inyang EE. HIV Infection in Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Calabar, Nigeria. Trop Doctor 2016; 46: 78-86.

Katibi AH, Adegoke AA. Correlates of HIV/AIDS knowledge and uptake of HIV counselling and testing among youths in Nigerian institutions of higher learning. Centrepoint J (Humanities Ed.) 2013; 15: 25-38.

Azuogu B, Ogbonnaya L, Alo C. HIV voluntary counselling and testing practices among military personnel and civilian residents in a military cantonment in southeastern Nigeria. HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2011; 3: 107-116.

Yahaya LA, Jimoh AAG, Balogun OR. Factors hindering acceptance of HIV/AIDS voluntary counselling and testing (HCT) among youths in Kwara State, Nigeria. Afr J Reprod Health 2014; 14: 159-164.

Barral MF, de Oliveira GR, Lobato RC, Mendoza-Sassi RA, Martinez AM, Gonncalves CV. Risk factors of HIV-1 vertical transmission (VT) and the influence of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy outcome. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2014; 56: 133-138.

United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS. Fact sheet - Latest global and regional statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic. Geneva: United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS; 2021.

Aidoo-Frimpong G, Agbemenu K, Orom H. A review of cultural influences on risk for HIV and culturally-responsive risk mitigation strategies among African immigrants in the US. J Immigrant Minority Health 2021; (3).

Federal Ministry of Health. National Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Counseling and Testing in Nigeria. 2020.

Corbett E, Dauya E, Matambo R, Cheung Y, Makamure B, Bassett M, et al. uptake of workplace HIV counselling and testing: A cluster-randomised trial in Zimbabwe. PLoS Med 2006; 3: e238.

Cheruiyot C, Magu D, Mburugu P, Saqwe D. Uptake and utilisation of institutional voluntary HIV testing and counselling services among students aged 18-24 in Kenya's public Universities. Afr Health Sci 2019; 19: 3190-3199.

Marcu EA, Dinescu SN, Padureanu V, Dumitrescu F, Diaconu R. Perinatal Exposure to HIV Infection: The Experience of Craiova Regional Centre, Romania. Healthcare (Basel) 2022; 10: 308.

Khodayari-Zarnaq R, Mosaddeghrad AM, Nadrian H, Kabiri N, Ravaghi H. Comprehensive analysis of the HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Health Res Policy Systems 2019; 17: 1.

Van Dyk AC. Client-initiated, provider-initiated, or self-testing for HIV: What do South Africans prefer? J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2013; 24: 45-56.

Odimegwu C, Adedini SA, Ononokpono DN. HIV/AIDS stigma and utilisation of voluntary counselling and testing in Nigeria. BMC Public Health 2013; 465.

Zelalem A, Aregawi Y, Yitayal S, Abebe A, Wubet B, Biniam M, Belayenesh T. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards voluntary counselling and testing among university students in North West Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 714.






Original Research