Research and Publication Ethics


  • PO Olatunji Department of Haematology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu



Ethics, Publication, Research, Authorship


Research is an effort to seek the truth and communicate it. In the process, participants or subjects of research must be recognised and respected, and the principles of research ethics must protect the vulnerable from exploitation. The researcher must do the reporting of research findings with honesty and professionalism. Non-adherence to the above principles in the early research period resulted in gross abuse of personality and autonomy. Research is now subjected to rigorous scrutiny to stem the tide of abuse and ascertain and guarantee the sanctity of the research participants, process and product. These are the fundamentals of the practice of ethics in both research and publication. In effect, this paper aims to address ethics and its application to research and publications.


Celsus C. On Medicine, I, Proem 23, 1935, translated by W. G. Spencer, (Loeb Classics Library, 1992).

Das NK, Sil A. Evolution of Ethics in Clinical Research and Ethics Committee. Indian J Dermatol 2017; 62: 373–379.

Numbers RL: William Beaumont and the Ethics of Human Experimentation. J History Biol 1979; 12: 113-135

Nuremberg Military Tribunal. The Nuremberg Code. JAMA 1996; 276: 1691.

IRB and the Office of Human Research Ethics Nuremberg Code Accessed 24 June 2021.

McLeod S. The Milgram Shock Experiment. 2017. Accessed 03 June 2021.

WMA Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Accessed 28 June 2021.

Beecher HK. Ethics and clinical research. The New Engl J Med 1966; 274: 1354–1360.

Krugman S. The Willowbrook Hepatitis Studies Revisited: Ethical Aspects. Rev Infect Dis 1986; 8: 157–162.

The Belmont Report. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979. Accessed 24 June 2021.

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects 1993. (CIOMS Guidelines). Accessed 24 June 2021.

Emanuel EJ, Wendler D, Killen J, Grady C. What makes Clinical Research in Developing Countries Ethical? The Benchmarks of Ethical Research. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 9930-9937.

Wise J. Pfizer accused of testing new drug without ethical approval. BMJ 2001; 322.

Federal Ministry of Health. National Code of Research Ethics 2007. Accessed on 21 August 2021.

Fieser J. Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed on 21 August2021.

Committee on Publication Ethics. Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing 2019. Accessed 11 May 2021.

“Research.” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Accessed 21 August 2021.

Research. Wikipedia. Accessed on 21 August 2021.

“Publication.” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Accessed on 21 August 2021.

Sengupta S, Honavar SG. Publication ethics. Indian J Ophthalmol 2017; 65: 429–432.

Predatory journals: How to identify them? Accessed 07 August 2021.

Jumare AI. Identifying Predatory Journals. A Paper presented at the monthly meeting of the Nigerian Society of Engineers, Zaria Branch. 07 July 2021.






Expert Opinion