The spectrum of thyroid disorders at the Endocrine Clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, South-west, Nigeria

  • Ayo Ale 2348033030388
  • Opeyemi Bamise Aloro Department of Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State.
  • Ayanbola Adepoju Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State.
  • Olatunde Odusan Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Medicine, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State
Keywords: Auto-immunity, Goitres, Graves' disease, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorders, Thyrotoxicosis


Background: Thyroid disorders constitute the second most common endocrine disorders worldwide, but they are less commonly researched in this environment due to low cost-effectiveness.

Objective: To study the spectrum of thyroid disorders at the Endocrinology Clinic of a tertiary health facility in Sagamu, South-west, Nigeria, over two years.

Method: This retrospective study was conducted on all new clinic attendees with thyroid disorders between January 2016 and December 2017. The data retrieved included clinical data, results of thyroid function tests and thyroid ultrasonographic scan. The patients were grouped clinically into euthyroid, hypothyroid and thyrotoxic states.

Results: A total of 93 thyroid cases were seen, and this constituted 13.64% of all new endocrine consultations (682 patients). The mean age (±SD; range) of the patients was 37.6 (13.6; 15-78) years. Majority of the patients were females with a female-to-male ratio of 4.5:1. Out of these, 77.4% had Goitrous enlargement. Thyrotoxicosis was the most common form of thyroid dysfunction, (72; 77.40%), mainly due to hyperthyroidism from Graves’ disease (50; 69.44%), followed by toxic multinodular goitre (12; 16.67%), toxic solitary nodular goiter (5; 6.94%) and others (5; 6.95 %). Hypothyroidism constituted 10.75% while euthyroid goitre constituted 11.85% of all thyroid cases.

Conclusion: Auto-immune thyroid disease remains the most common thyroid disorder among endocrine clinic attendees. There is a need for further studies to elucidate the likely aetiologies. 


Ogbera AO, Kuku SF. Epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Africa. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2011; 15: 82-88.

Hussain N, Anwar M, Nadia N, Ali Z. Pattern of surgically treated thyroid disease in Karachi. Biomed 2005; 21:18-20.

Ogbera AO, Fansanmade O, Adediran O. Pattern of thyroid disorders in southwestern region of Nigeria. Ethn Dis 2007; 17: 327-330.

Walkinson JC. Fifteen years’ experience in thyroid surgery. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2010; 92: 541-547.

Salami BA, Odusan O, Ebili HO, Akintola PA. Spectrum and prevalence of thyroid diseases seen at a tertiary health facility in Sagamu, South–West Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J 2016; 23: 137-140.

Solomon R, Iliasu Y, Mohammed AZ. Histological pattern of thyroid lesions in Kano. A 10–year retrospective review (2002-2011). Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2015; 12: 55-60.

Bianco AC, Salvatore D, Gereben B, Berry MJ, Larsen PR. Biochemistry, cellular and molecular biology, and physiological roles of the iodothyronine selenodeiodinases. Endocr Rev 2002; 23: 38–39.

Andersen S, Bruun NH, Pedersen KM, Laurberg P. Biologic variation is important for interpretation of thyroid function tests. Thyroid 2003; 13: 1069–1078.

Bassett JH, Williams GR. Critical role of the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis in bone. Bone 2008; 43: 418–426.

Sanjay K, Sachin K.K, Aakshit G.Clinical Scoring Scales in Thyroidology. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2011; 15: 89-94.

Brent GP. Grave' disease. New Engl J Med 2008; 358: 2594-2605.

Olurin EO, Itayemi SO, Oluwasanmi JO, Ajayi A. The pattern of thyroid gland diseases in Ibadan, Nigeria. Niger Med J 1973; 3: 58-55.

Famuyiwa OO, Bella AF. Thyrotoxicosis in Nigerians. Analysis of a five year experience. Trop Geogr Med 1990; 42: 248-284.

Brook RD, Rajagopalan S. Guidelines for the prevention, detection, evaluation and management of high blood pressure in adults. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Taskforce on Clinical guidelines .J Am Soc Hypertens 2017; 71: 1-481.

Czarkowski M, Hilgertner L, Powalowski T, Radomski D, Mikulska M. Is the resistance of large conduit arteries also decreased in thyrotoxicosis patients with Grave’s disease? Thyroid 2005; 15: 377.

Dickinson AJ, Vaida B, Miller M. Octreotide is not an effective therapy for patients with Grave’s ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 5910-5915.

Elberling TV, Rasmussen AK, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hording M, Perrild H, Waldemar G, Impaired health-related quality of life in Grave’s disease: a prospective study. Eur J Endocrinol 2004; 151:549-555.

Burch HD, Wartofsky L. Life-threatening thyrotoxicosis: thyroid storm. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am 1993; 22: 263-268.

Saro K, Tse-ling F. Hepatic Dysfunction in Hyperthyroidism. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 7: 337-339.

Ale AO, Onyido OO, Ogundele SO, Ogbera AO, Odusan O. Renal Functional status of hyperthyroid patients. Niger Endocr Pract 2015; 9: 27-30.

Ale AO, Ogbera AO, Ebili HO, Adeyemo OL, Afe TO. Prevalence, predictive factors and characteristics of osteoporosis in Hyperthyroid Patients. Int J Endocrinol 2018; 3: 1-7.

Ale AO, Ogbera AO, Odusan O, Dada AO, Afe AO, Adeleye OO, Adeleye OO, et al. Osteomalacia and Vitamin D Status among Hyperthyroid patients with Metabolic Bone Disease in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr J Endocrinol Metab 2018; 11: 21-27.

Ale AO, Odusan OO, Afe TO, Adeyemo OL, Ogbera AO. Bone fractures among Adult Nigerians with Hyperthyroidism: Risk factors, Pattern and Frequency. J Endocrinol Diabetes Metab South Afr 2019; 24: 28-31.

Original Research