Pattern and outcome of Diabetic Ketoacidosis among children with Type 1 Diabetes mellitus at Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of Diabetes mellitus. There are few reports on the pattern and outcome of DKA in childhood diabetes in Nigeria but none on the diabetic population from Osun State, Nigeria.
Objective: To determine the pattern and factors influencing the outcome of children managed for DKA at the Paediatric Endocrinology Unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, over a ten-year period.
Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical records of all the children managed for Type-1 Diabetes mellitus (TIDM) over ten years (2007-2016) was done. Relevant information was obtained from the clinical records and the data were analyzed.
Results: A total of 15 children with DKA comprising 8 (53.3%) males and 7 (46.7%) females were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Twenty-eight episodes of DKA were recorded during the period, thus putting the average frequency per patient at 1.9. DKA was the first manifestation of DM in the majority (86.7%) of the subjects. The mean age at diagnosis of DM was 11.9+3.6 years with about half (53.3%) occurring during pre-adolescence. The socio-economic status of the affected families had an inverse relationship with the frequency of DKA.
Conclusion: DKA is the most common initial presentation of Type-1 DM among Nigerian children, with a high rate of recurrence and an inverse relationship with socioeconomic status.
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