Antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanolic stem bark extract of Newbouldia laevis in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats
Keywords:Antidiarrhoeal activity, Castor oil, Charcoal meal, Gastro-intestinal motility, Newbouldia laevis
Background: Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries requiring urgent attention. Many of the conventional anti-diarrhoeal drugs cause serious adverse effects, hence the need to screen various plants for their medicinal values becomes imperative.
Objective: To investigate the anti-diarrhoeal activity of ethanolic stem bark extract of Newbouldia laevis in castor-oil induced diarrhoea in rats.
Methods: The stem bark of Newbouldia laevis collected from Abeokuta, Ogun State, was air-dried, ground, macerated in 90% ethanol and concentrated to dryness in a water bath and then reconstituted using distilled water. Fifty (50) albino rats of both sexes used for the study were divided into two groups: A and B with twenty-five (25) rats per group.
Group A was used for the gastro-intestinal motility test using charcoal meal while
Group B was used for castor-oil induced diarrhoea test and the number of stool pellets was counted over an hour period.
Results: The extract (250-1000mg/kg) showed significant (p = 0.0399) anti-diarrhoeal activity by decreasing the distance of the gastrointestinal movement of charcoal meal in the treated rats and also inhibited the severity of diarrhoea induced by castor-oil in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control (distilled water). This activity could be attributed to phytochemicals like flavonoids and tannins present in Newbouldia laevis.
Conclusion: The results showed that stem bark extract of Newbouldia laevis possesses a significant anti-diarrhoeal property and this supports the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of diarrhoea.
William J.S and William E.W. Gastrointestinal Disorders: Diarrhoea, Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Pharmacotherapy; Pathophysiologic Approach. 6th Edition. McGraw Hill. 2005. pp 677.
Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK. Drugs affecting major organ systems: The Gastrointestinal Tract. 5th Edition. Church Hill. 2003. pp 376.
World Health Organization.Diarrhoea disease Fact sheet N0330. 2013.
Laloo D, Hemalatha S. Ethnomedicinal plants used for Diarrhoea by Tribals of Meghalaye, Northeast India. Pharmacog Rev 2011; 5(10):147-154.
Tripathi KD. Gastrointestinal Drugs: Drugs used in Constipation and Diarrhoea. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. 6th Edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. 2008. pp 657.
World Health Organization. "Diarrhea disease Fact sheet N°330. 2013. Retrieved 9th July 2014.
Global Burden of Disease. Study 2013 Collaborators "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet 2015; 386(9995): 743–800. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4.
CDC. Global Diarrhoea Burden 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
Global Burden of Disease. Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet 2013; 385(9963): 117–171. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2.
Global Burden of Disease.Diarrhoea Disease Collaborators. Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and etiologies of Diarrhoea in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 18(11): 1211-1228. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30362-1.
Nelson R. Diarrhoea remains a leading cause of Global Mortality and Morbidity. Gastroenterology. Infectious Disease Advisor. Haymarket Media Inc. 2018.
Sapone A, Bai JC, Ciacci C, Dolinsek J, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, et al. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: Consensus on New Nomenclature and Classification. BMC Med(Rev) 2012; 10: 13. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-13.
Abdelmalak B, Doyle J. Anesthesia for otolaryngological surgery. Cambridge University Press. 2013. pp. 282–287.
DuPont HL. Acute infectious diarrhoea in immunocompetent adults. New Engl J Med 2014; 370(16): 1532–1540.
Slattery SA, Niaz O, Aziz Q, Ford AC, Farmer AD. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of bile acid malabsorption in the irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea. Alimentary Pharmacol Therap 2015; 42(1): 3–11.doi: 10.1111/apt.13227.
Moon C, Zhang W, Sundaram N, Yarlagadda S, Reddy VS, Arora K, Helmrath MA, Naren AP. Drug-induced secretory diarrhoea: A role for CFTR. Pharmacol Res 2015: 102: 107–112. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2015.08.024.
William JS, William EW. Gastrointestinal Disorders: Diarrhoea, Constipation, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Pharmacotherapy; Pathophysiologic Approach. 6th Edition. McGraw Hill. 2005. pp 679.
DuPont HL. Acute infectious diarrhoea in immunocompetent adults. New Engl J Med 2014; 370(16): 1532–1540. doi: 10.1056/nejmra1301069.
Umeokoli BO, Ekeh MN, Eze P, Umeyor C, Abba C. Improved Gastric Lesion of Ulcerogenic Mice treated with Bark Extract and Fractions of Newbouldia laevis. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2015 9(21):553-560.
Usman H, Osuji JC. Phytochemical and In-vitro Antimicrobial Assay of the Leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis. Afr J Tradit Complem Altern Med 2007; 4(4):476-480.
Iwu MM. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Inc. London. 2000. pp 19-
Gnanasekar N, Perianayagam JB. Influence of sodium curcuminate on castor-oil induced diarrhoea in rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2004; 36: 177-178.
Shoba F.G, Thomas M. Study of anti-diarrhoeaactivity of Four Medicinal Plants in Castor oil-induced Diarrhoea. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 76:73-76.
Yakubu M, Toyin OF, Khadijat SS, Ajiboye TO, Bamisaye FA, Quadri AL. Anti-diarrhoea activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ceratotheca sesamoides in rats. Bangladesh J Pharmacol2012; 7: 14-20.
Abera B. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2014; 10(1): Article40.
Akintola AO, Adedosu OT, Kehinde BD, Ibikunle GJ. Evaluation of Anti-diarrhoea Activity of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Vernonia amygdalina in experimental animals. J Nat Sci Res. 2016; 6(10): 61-66.
Akuodor GC, Muazzam I, Usman-Idris M, Megwas UA, Akpan JI, Chilaka KC, et al. Evaluation of the Anti-diarrhoea activity of methanol leaf extract of Bombax buonopozense in rats. Ibnosina J Med BS 2011; 3(1): 15-20.
Ibeh RC, Ikechukwu GC, Ijioma SN, Nwankwo CI, Singh AK, Asadi-Samani M, et al. Anti-spasmolytic and anti-diarrhoeal activities of Newbouldia laevis, Cola nitida and Acanthus montanus Extracts on Gastrointestinal Muscles.J Pharmacol Toxicol 2019; 14(1):1-8. doi: 10.3923/jpt.2019.1.8.
Havagiray R, Ramesh C, Sadhna K. Study of Anti-diarrhoea activity of Calotropisgignatear b.r in experimental animals. J Pharmacol Pharmaceut Sci 2004; 7: 70-75.
Anaduaka EG, Ogugua VN, Egbs S, Apeh VO. Investigation of some important Phytochemicals, Nutritional Properties and Toxicological Potentials of Ethanolic extracts of Newbouldia laevis leaf and stem. Afr J Biotechnol 2013; 12(40):5846-5854.
James N, Bernard M, Haruna M, Larry S, John K. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Ethanolic fruit extract of Psidium guajava in castor-oil induced Diarrhoea in albino rats.Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 3(2): 191-197.
Bhutta ZA, Bird SM, Black RE. Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhoea in children in developing countries: Pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutri 2000; 72(6):1516-1522.
Roohani N, Hurrel R, Kelishadi R, Schulin R. Zinc and its importance for human health: An integrative Review. J Res Med Sci 2013; 18(2): 144-157.
Mekeon TA, Lin A, Stafford AE. Biosynthesis of Ricinoleate in Castor oil. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 464: 37-47. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-4729-4.
Brijesh S, Daswani P, Terali P, Antia N, Birdi T. Studies on the anti-diarrhoeal activity of Aegie marmedosunripe fruit. Validating its traditional usage. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009; 9(47): 1-12.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.