Quality of Sleep and Psychological Distress in Glaucoma
Background: People living with glaucoma are psychologically burdened because of the threat of visual loss. Therefore, understanding the psychosocial issues and quality of sleep holds important implications for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of emotional problems among people with glaucoma. This study investigated the quality of sleep and psychological distress among people with glaucoma.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of adults recruited over a period of 12 weeks from a glaucoma clinic of a Teaching Hospital in south-west Nigeria. The quality of sleep and psychological distress were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and General Health Questionnaire respectively.
Results: Ninety-three adults with glaucoma participated in the study. The mean age was 62.33 ± 15.25 years. Fifty-seven (61.3%) of the subjects were poor sleepers while 27 (29.0%) were psychologically distressed. Psychological distress correlated with global sleep score (r = 0.399, p = 0.000), subjective sleep quality (r = 0.341, p = 0.001), sleep latency (r = 0.245, p = 0.018) and sleep disturbance (r = 0.279, p = 0.007).
Conclusion: Psychological distress and sleep disturbances were common among patients with glaucoma. Concerns about these issues should be incorporated into routine clinical evaluations of patients with glaucoma.
Hess RF. Visual perception. In: Levin LA, Nilsson SFE, Ver Hoeve J, Wu S, Kaufman PL. Adler's Physiology of the Eye. 11th Edition. New York: Elsevier Inc. 2011: 613-698.
Olver J, Cassidy L. Ophthalmology at a Glance. Massachusetts: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2005: 8.
La Grow SJ. Visual Disabilities. In: Bellack AS, Hersen M. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology (Volume 9, Section 4). Oxford: Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd; 1998: 57-68.
Nyman SR, Gosney MA and Victor CR. Psychosocial impact of visual impairment in working-age adults. Br J Ophthalmol 2010; 94: 1427-1431.
Ramulu P. Glaucoma and disability: which tasks are affected, and at what stage of disease? Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2009; 20(2): 92-98.
Ramulu PY, van Landingham SW, Massof RW, Chan ES, Ferrucci L and Friedman DS. Fear of falling and visual field loss from glaucoma. Ophthalmol 2012; 119(7): 1352-1358.
Abateneh A, Tesfaye M, Bekele S, Gelaw Y. Vision loss and psychological distress among Ethiopians adults: A comparative cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(10): e78335. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078335
VanNewkirk MR, Weih L, McCarty CA, Taylor HR. Cause-specific prevalence of bilateral visual impairment in Victoria, Australia: the Visual Impairment Project. Ophthalmol 2001; 108:960–967.
Kini MM, Leibowitz HM, Colton T, Nickerson RJ, Ganley J, Dawber TR. Prevalence of senile cataract, diabetic retinopathy, senile macular degeneration and open-angle glaucoma in the Framingham Eye Study. Am J Ophthalmol 1978; 85: 28–34.
Pizzarello LD. The dimensions of the problem of eye disease among the elderly. Ophthalmol 1987; 94: 1191–1195.
Quigley HA, Broman AT. The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020. Br J Ophthalmol 2006; 90: 262–267.
Kingman S. Glaucoma is second leading cause of blindness globally. Bull World Health Organ 2004; 82:887–888.
Weinreb RN, Khaw PT. Primary open-angle glaucoma. Lancet 2004; 363(9422): 1711–1720.
Weinreb RN, Aung T, Medeiros FA. The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review. JAMA 2014; 311(18): 1901-1911.
Janz NK, Wren PA, Guire KE, Musch DC, Gillespie BW, Lichter PR. Fear of blindness in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study: patterns and correlates over time. Ophthalmol 2007; 114:2213–2220.
Lichter PR. Glaucoma therapy and quality of life. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 1991; 4: 897-904.
Ayaki M, Kawashima M, Negishi K, Tsubota K. High prevalence of sleep and mood disorders in dry eye patients: survey of 1,000 eye clinic visitors. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015; 11: 889-894.
Onen SH, Mouriaux F, Berramdane L, Dascotte JC, Kulik JF, Rouland JF. High prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol Scan 2000; 78: 638–641.
McNab AA. The eye and sleep apnea. Sleep Med Rev 2007; 11: 269–276.
Sergi M, Salerno DE, Rizzi M, Blini M, Andreoli A, Messenio D et al. Prevalence of normal tension glaucoma in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. J Glaucoma 2007; 16: 42–46.
Li Y, Zeng Y, Chen ZF, Zhang XJ, Duan XY. Investigation of sleep quality in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma. J Kunming Med Coll 2007; 28: 55–58.
Waller EA, Bendel RE, Kaplan J. Sleep Disorder and the Eye. Mayo Clin Proc 2008; 83: 1251–1261.
Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatr Res 1989; 28: 193–213
Gureje O, Obikoya B. The GHQ-12 is a screening tool used in a Primary Health Setting. Soc Psychiatr Epidemiol 1990; 20(6): 649-55.
Mabuchi F, Yoshimura K, Kashiwagi K, et al. High prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. J Glaucoma 2008; 17: 552–557.
Wang SY, Singh K, Lin SC. Prevalence and predictors of depression among participants with glaucoma in a nationally representative population sample. Am J Ophthalmol 2012; 154: 436–44 e2.
Tastan S, Iyigun E, Bayer A, Acikel C. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in Turkish patients with glaucoma. Psychol Rep 2010; 106: 343–357.
Gureje O, Lasebikan VO, Kola L, Makanjuola VA. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders in the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Br J Psychiatr 2006; 188(5): 465-471.
Erb C, Batra A, Lietz A, Bayer AU, Flammer J, Thiel HJ. Psychological characteristics of patients with normal tension glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1999; 237: 753–757.
Mabuchi F, Yoshimura K, Kashiwagi K, Shioe K, Kanba S, Iijima H, et al. Personality assessment based on the five factor model of personality structure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2005; 49: 31–35.
Igarashi Y, Sato E, Ito A, Miyauchi O, Ikejiri M, Hanawa T, et al. Comparison of Yatabe-Guilford personality test results in retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma patients. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2003; 47:1–5.
Yuki K, Tanabe S, Kouyama K, Fukagawa K, Uchino M, Shimoyama M, et al. The association between visual field defect severity and fear of falling in primary open-angle glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(12): 7739–7745.
Varma R, Lee PP, Goldberg I, Kotak S. An assessment of the health and economic burdens of glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2011; 152(4): 515-522.
Schmier JK, Halpern MT, Jones ML. The economic implications of glaucoma: a literature review. Pharmacoeconomics 2007; 25(4): 287-308
Alebiosu OC, Ogunsemi OO, Familoni OB, Adebayo PB, Ayodele OE. Quality of sleep among hypertensive patients in a semi-urban Nigerian community: A prospective study. Postgrad Med 2009; 121(1): 166-172.
Iliescu EA, Yeates KE, Holland DC. Quality of sleep in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dialysis Transplant 2004; 19(1): 95-99.
Gracitelli CP, Duque-Chica GL, Roizenblatt M, de Araújo Moura AL, Nagy BV, de Melo GR, et al. Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell activity is associated with decreased sleep quality in patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmol 2015; 122(6): 1139-1148.
Gracitelli CP B, Paranhos Jr A. Can glaucoma affect sleep quality? Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia 2015; 78(3): V-VI.
Wang H, Zhang Y, Ding J, Wang N. Changes in the circadian rhythm in patients with primary glaucoma. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(4): e62841.
Zele AJ, Feigl B, Smith SS, Markwell EL. The circadian response of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(3): e17860.
Gooley JJ. Treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders with light. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008; 37: 669–676.
Aqorastos A, Huber CG. The role of melatonin in glaucoma: implications concerning pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic potential. J Pineal Res 2011; 50: 1–7.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.