Bacterial colonization on Automated Teller Machines from selected Local Government Areas in Ibadan, Oyo State
Background: Automated Teller Machines (ATM) are interactive physical platforms that respond to touch command of the user when an account holder inserts a coded bank card. They are operated with finger impressions of bank customers after insertion of the coded card.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of isolates, quantify and determine the susceptibility of the isolates to conventional antibiotics and to test the efficacy of disinfectants on the bacterial isolates from these selected ATMs.
Methods: Ten(10) ATMs were selected per Local Government Areas (LGA) in five LGA. Sterile swab impregnated with physiological saline was aseptically impressed and rolled over the keypad and screens of the ATMs. The swabs were inoculated in peptone broth and incubated for 24 to 48hours. The inoculums from the broth were streaked on five (5) different selective agar media and standard biochemical tests were used to confirm the bacterial isolates.
Results: The prevalence rates of the bacterial agents found on the ATMs were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (30; 60%), Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp (10; 20%), Pseudomonas spp (16; 32%), and Streptococcus spp (20; 40%) respectively. Antibiogram was carried on biochemically identified isolates, and most of the isolates showed varied susceptibility to the antibiotics and the disinfectants tested.
Conclusion: Multiple bacterial isolates found in this study have the potential to attain pathogenic status in compromised hosts and the possibility of transmission of these isolates from one user to another is a challenge of epidemiological magnitude.
Ayo CK, Adewole JO, Oni AA. The state of e-banking implementation in Nigeria a post consolidation
review. J Emerging Trends Econ Manag Sci 2010; 1(1): 37-45.
Makinde AEI. Bacteriological assessment of some Automated Teller Machine (ATM) Keypads In Ilorin metropolis. Ilorin J Sci 2014: 1(2): 264-279.
Mathai E, Allerganzi B, Kilpatrick C, Pittet D. Prevention and control of health-care associated infections through improved hand hygiene. Indian J Med Microbiol 2010: 28(2): 100-106.
Ojo J. Automatic Teller Machines: A Revolution and its Pains. Extracted from:
http://jideojong.blogspot.com/2010/03/automatic-teller-machines-revolution.html. Accessed on 2 April, 2014.
Tekerekoğlu MS, Yakupogullari Y, Otlu B, Duman Y, Gucluer N. Bacteria found on banks automated teller machines (ATMs). Afr J Microbiol Res.2013; 7(16): 1619-1621.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Testing. Sixteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S16. CLSI, Wayne, PA, US: 2012.
Nworie O, Mercy M, Chukwudi A, Oko I, Chukwudum SO, Agah V M, et al. Antibiogram of bacteria isolated from automated teller machines Abakaliki metropolis. Am J Infect Dis 2012; 8(4): 168.-174.
Zhang M, O’dononghue M, Boost MV. Characterization of Staphylococci contaminating automated
teller machines in Hong Kong. Epidemiol Infect 2012; 140 (08): 1366-1371.
Dongyou L, Molecular Detection of Human Bacterial Pathogens. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group. 2011.
Lukwiya B. The effect of Automated teller machine use on customer satisfaction. A case study for the award of Bachelor of Commerce, Makerere University, 2011.
Sharma N, Rathore VS. Analysis of Different Vulnerabilities in Auto Teller Machine Transactions. J
Global Res Computer Sci 2012; 3(3): 38-40.
Nwankwo EO, Offiah JC. Bacterial contamination of user interface of Automated Teller Machines
(ATM) of Various Banks in Umuahia Metropolis, Abia State, Nigeria. Hypothesis 2012; 4(5): 1-9.
Copyright (c) 2020 Annals of Health Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.