Qualitative phytochemical screening and antimicrobial evaluation of the total alkaloids of the hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Musanga cercropoides (Urticaceae)
Background: Musanga cecropioides R.Br. ex Tedlie (Urticaceae) is a plant that is widely used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the treatment of various infections such as cough, diarrhoea, and vaginal candidiasis.
Objective: To study the antimicrobial potency of the total alkaloids of the hydroalcoholic extracts (HAE) of the stem bark (ST) and leaves of Musanga cecropioides.
Method: The antimicrobial activities of the total alkaloidal constituent of the HAE of the ST and leaves were screened using agar diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtils,Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans as test organisms. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the ST and leaves were performed following the conventional standard procedures of Trease and Evans.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, saponins and terpenoids. The HAE of both ST and leaves exhibited notable activities against the tested microorganisms at different concentrations (500, 250, 125, 62.5 mg/ml) with zones of inhibition ranging from 8.6±0.5mm to 20.0±1.0mm. The highest activity against bacteria had a zone of inhibition of 18.6±1.1mm and 20.0±1.0mm for fungus. The zone of inhibition for antibacterial control drug (Ciprofloxacin) was 42.3±2.0mm while that of antifungal control drug (Griseofulvin) was 32.0±0.8mm. The total alkaloid yield for the ST was 1.200%w/w and 1.332%w/w for the leaves.
Conclusion: Musanga cercropoidesmay be a valuable source of a therapeutic agent for potent clinical antimicrobials.
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