Epidemiology of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Nigeria
Keywords:Coronavirus, COVID-19, Nigeria, Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome
In late December 2019, there was an outbreak of a new Coronavirus infection in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, which caused acute respiratory syndrome of unknown aetiology. The World Health Organization (WHO) named the virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) or COVID-19 and declared the infection a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020.
The first case of COVID-19 in Nigeria was reported on the 27th of February 2020 and since then the numbers of confirmed cases has been on the increase, at least in Nigeria. With no vaccine or cure in sight, only public health measures that include personal protective measures, physical distancing, environmental and travel-related measures have been recommended to mitigate and contain the spread of the disease. There is need to make testing for COVID-19 widely available so that the true burden of the infection will be described. This step should assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions in the prevention and control of the disease.
Tyrrell DA, Almeida JD, Cunningham CH, Dowdle WR, Hofstad MS, McIntosh K, et al. Coronaviridae. Intervirology 1975; 5: 76–82.
Yin Y, Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other Coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology. 2018; 23: 130-137.
World Health Organization. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Geneva [4 May 2020]. Available from: https://www.who.int/ith/diseases/sars/en/.
MMWR. Updated Information on the Epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection and Guidance for the Public, Clinicians, and Public Health Authorities, 2012–2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013/V; 62: 793-796.
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel Coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. Published Online First:24 January 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001017.
Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel Coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet. Published Online First: 24 January 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9.
Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel Coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet. Published Online First: 30 January 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(20)30251-8.
Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new Coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. Published Online First: 3 February 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7.
World Health Organization. WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19: 11 March 2020. Published March 11, 2020. Accessed April 11, 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-directorgeneral-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefingon-covid-19---11-April-2020.
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report 1.2020. [Cited 14th April 2020].
Yang Y, Lu QB, Liu MJ, Wang Y, Zhang A, Jalali N, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of the 2019 novel Coronavirus outbreak in China. Preprint. MedRxiv. Published Online First: 3 February 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.10. 20021675.
Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, Nguyen TV, Nguyen HT, Le HQ, et al. Importation and human-to-human transmission of a Novel Coronavirus in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. Published Online First: 28 January 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001272.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel Coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet. Published Online First: 30 January 2020. doi:https:// doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.
Ludvigsson JF. Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr. 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. Published Online First: 24 January 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Brassey J, Heneghan C, Mahtani KR, Aronson K. Do weather conditions influence the transmission of the Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? 2020 [internet publication].
Ujiie M, Tsuzuki S, Ohmagari N. Effect of temperature on the infectivity of COVID-19. Int J Infect Dis 2020 [Epub ahead of print].
Shi P, Dong Y, Yan H, Zhao C, Li X, He M, et al. Impact of temperature on the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Sci Total Environ 2020; 728: 138890.
Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine; Heneghan C, Jefferson T. Effect of latitude on COVID-19. 2020 [Internet Publication].
John Hopkins University. COVID-19 dashboard by centre for systems science and engineering at the John Hopkins University. https://Coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html
Nkengasong JN, Mankoula W. Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast. Lancet 2020; 395: 841–842.
World Health Organization. COVID-19 in the African Region: WHO Africa Dashboard. https://www.afro.who.int/health-topics/Coronavirus-covid-19
Lilienfeld, DE. Definitions of epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 1978; 107: 87-90
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. COVID-19 in Nigeria. https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/
Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel Coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2020; 41(2): 145-151.
Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/S01406736(20)30566-3.
Wang D, Yin Y, Hu C, Liu X, Zhang X, Zhou S, et al. Clinical course and outcome of 107 patients infected with the novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, discharged from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. Crit Care 2020; 24: 188 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-02895-6.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.