Knowledge of COVID-19, Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Other Safety Practices of Healthcare Workers in Southwest Nigeria

  • TO Ojo
  • O Fajobi
  • AO Babatola
  • MA Akinolosotu
  • OT Esan
  • TA Adetunji
  • A Onayade
Keywords: COVID-19, Healthcare Workers, Hospital Staff, Infections Prevention and Control, Safety Practices

Abstract

Background: Healthcare workers have a higher risk of SARS CoV2 infection with implications for transmission of infection and the safety of workers and patients.

Objective: To assess knowledge on COVID-19 and the safety practices among selected healthcare workers in southwest Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 210 workers providing direct care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted. Respondents were recruited through simple random sampling of members of online platforms of healthcare workers in Osun, Ondo and Ekiti States. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of PPE and safety practices was obtained through a close-ended questionnaire.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 36.5±7.5 years. About 29% and 30% of respondents were from the State and Federal Government-owned Teaching Hospitals, respectively. A little above half (58.1%) had good knowledge of COVID-19, while 62.1% used PPE always when attending to suspected COVID19 cases. More than half (53.8%) had been trained on infection prevention and control (IPC), but only 34.3% adhered to good safety practices. Healthcare workers in State government-owned teaching hospitals had lower odds of good safety practices than those in Federal Teaching Hospitals (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.19-0.93, p = 0.031).

Conclusion: The knowledge of appropriate PPE and practice of safety precautions among healthcare workers is sub-optimal. This may predispose to increased COVID-19 transmission among healthcare workers, patients, and their families. Training and retraining healthcare workers, especially those from hospitals identified by the study as having poor safety practices, should be encouraged.

References

Yang J, Chen X, Deng X, Chen Z, Gong H, Yan H, et al. Disease burden and clinical severity of the first pandemic wave of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Nature Communications 2020; 11: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19238-2

World Health Organization. COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological Update Global overview. 2021.

Worldometer.info. COVID Live Update: [Internet]. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic 2022 [Cited 2022 Feb 10]; Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

Rekatsina M, Paladini A, Moka E, Yeam CT, Urits I, Viswanath O, et al. Healthcare at the time of COVID-19: A review of the current situation with emphasis on anesthesia providers. Best Practice and Research: Clin Anaesthesiol 2020; 34: 539–551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.07.002

Slifka MK, Gao L. Is presymptomatic spread a major contributor to COVID-19 transmission? Nature Med 2020; 26: 1531–1533. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1046-6

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. J Am Med Assoc 2020; 323: 1061–1069. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1585

Schwartz K, Achonu C, Buchan S, Brown K, Lee B, Whelan M, et al. COVID-19 infections among Healthcare Workers and Transmission within Households. medRxiv 2020; 2020.06.12.20129619. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.12.20129619

Sabetian G, Moghadami M, Hashemizadeh Fard Haghighi L, Shahriarirad R, Fallahi MJ, Asmarian N, et al. COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study in southwest Iran. Virol J 2021; 18: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/S12985-021-01532-0

Hasan MM, Costa AC dos S, Xenophontos E, Mohanan P, Bassey EE, Ahmad S, et al. Lassa fever and COVID-19 in Africa: A double crisis on the fragile health system. J Med Virol 2021; 93: 5707. https://doi.org/10.1002/JMV.27169

Hussen H, Alemu ZA. Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Associated Factors Among Healthcare Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study at Eka Kotebe Treatment Center in Ethiopia. Int J Gen Med 2021; 14: 1763–1772. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S301518

Hakim S, Abouelezz N, Okda E. Use of personal protective devices among health care workers in a teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Egyptian J Occup Med 2016; 40: 287–300. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejom.2016.846

Adeleye OO, Adeyemi AS, Oyem JC, Akindokun SS, Ayanlade JI. Rational Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) among Health Workers in COVID-19. Frontline Eur J Pharm Med Res 2020; 7: 445–451.

Suppan L, Abbas M, Stuby L, Cottet P, Larribau R, Golay E, et al. Effect of an E-learning module on personal protective equipment proficiency among prehospital personnel: Web-based randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2020; 22: e21265. https://doi.org/10.2196/21265

Kea B, Johnson A, Lin A, Lapidus J, Cook JN, Choi C, et al. An international survey of healthcare workers use of personal protective equipment during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Coll Emerg Phys Open 2021; 2: e12392. https://doi.org/10.1002/EMP2.12392

Kassie BA, Adane A, Kassahun EA, Ayele AS, Belew AK. Poor COVID-19 Preventive Practice among Healthcare Workers in Northwest Ethiopia, 2020. Adv Public Health 2020; 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7526037

Aguwa EN, Arinze-Onyia SU, Ndu A. Use of Personal Protective Equipment among Health Workers in a Tertiary Health Institution, Southeast Nigeria: Pre-Ebola Period. Int J Health Sci Res 2016; 6: 12.

Alao MA, Durodola AO, Ibrahim OR, Asinobi OA. Assessment of Health Workers’ Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Use of Personal Protective Equipment for Prevention of COVID-19 Infection in Low-Resource Settings. Adv Public Health 2020; 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4619214

Ilesanmi O, Afolabi A. Perception and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in an urban community in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. PeerJ [Internet] 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 9]; 8: e10038. https://doi.org/10.7717/PEERJ.10038

Maude RR, Jongdeepaisal M, Skuntaniyom S, Muntajit T, Blacksell SD, Khuenpetch W, et al. Improving knowledge, attitudes and practice to prevent COVID-19 transmission in healthcare workers and the public in Thailand. BMC Public Health 2021; 21: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/S12889-021-10768-Y

Ejeh FE, Saidu AS, Owoicho S, Maurice NA, Jauro S, Madukaji L, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice among healthcare workers towards COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. Heliyon 2020; 6: e05557. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.HELIYON.2020.E05557

Asemahagn MA. Factors determining the knowledge and prevention practice of healthcare workers towards COVID-19 in Amhara region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey. Trop Med Health 2020; 48: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/S41182-020-00254-3

Olum R, Chekwech G, Wekha G, Nassozi DR, Bongomin F. Coronavirus Disease-2019: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Health Care Workers at Makerere University Teaching Hospitals, Uganda. Frontiers Public Health 2020; 8: 181 https://doi.org/10.3389/FPUBH.2020.00181

Bhagavathula A, Aldhaleei W, Rahmani J, Mahabadi M, Bandari D. Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) knowledge and perceptions: a survey on healthcare workers. medrxiv [Preprint] 2020 [cited 2021 Aug 23]; Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033381v2 https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033381

Ahmed AMK, Ojo OY, Imhonopi GB, Oladeji FO, Oyesola OA, Alausa OK. Knowledge, perceptions and safety practices of COVID-19 infection among healthcare workers in a tertiary health institution, Southwest, Nigeria. Int J Comm Med Public Health 2020; 7: 4697-705. https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20205137

Mulkalwar S, Sujanyal SA, Jadhav SL, Mulkalwar A, Rane B, Tilak A V, et al. Use of personal protective equipment among doctors deployed in COVID-19 duty and factors affecting it. J Prev Med Holistic Health 2021; 6: 76–81. https://doi.org/10.18231/J.JPMHH.2020.015

Oladele DA, Idigbe IE, Musa AZ, Gbaja-Biamila T, Bamidele T, Ohihoin AG, et al. Self-reported use of and access to personal protective equipment among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. Heliyon 2021; 7: e07100. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.HELIYON.2021.E07100

Ranney ML, Griffeth V, Jha AK. Critical Supply Shortages — The Need for Ventilators and Personal Protective Equipment during the Covid-19 Pandemic. New Eng J Med 2020; 382: e41. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp2006141

Elo-Ilo C, Ajator C, Ezeagwuna D, Mbanuzuru A. COVID-19: Preventive Strategies among Workers in a Tertiary Health Institution in South-east Nigeria. Int. J. Trop. Dis. Health 2021; 42: 17–27. https://doi.org/10.9734/IJTDH/2021/v42i1130494

Rizzo C, Campagna I, Pandolfi E, Croci I, Russo L, Ciampini S, et al. Knowledge and Perception of COVID-19 Pandemic during the First Wave (Feb–May 2020): A Cross-Sectional Study among Italian Healthcare Workers. Int J Env Res Public Health 2021; 18: 3767. https://doi.org/10.3390/IJERPH18073767

Michael IT. Determinants of Knowledge and Practice of Infection Prevention and Control among Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak in Nigeria. Texila Int J Public Health 2020; 8: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.21522/tijph.2013.08.03.art019

Etteh C, Adoga M, Ogbaga C. COVID-19 response in Nigeria: health system preparedness and lessons for future epidemics in Africa. Ethics Med Public Health 2020; 15: 100580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemep.2020.100580

Published
2022-03-25
Section
Original Research