Elevated Blood Pressure, Abnormal Urinalysis and Body Mass Index as Screening Tools for Latent Kidney Diseades Among Adolescents in Sagamu
Background: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases, such as chronic kidney diseases, is on the increase globally. Therefore, early identification of these conditions through routine screening is desired as a preventive measure.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of elevated blood pressure among adolescents and relate it to abnormal urinalysis and blood sugar patterns.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of adolescent secondary school students in Sagamu was carried out. The subjects were selected through random sampling method. Using standard methods, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The blood pressure measurements were grouped into pre-hypertension and hypertension using standard charts. Dipsticks and glucometer respectively were used to examine urine and determine random blood glucose levels. Statistical analyses were done to determine the variables associated with elevated blood pressure.
Results: A total of 572 subjects comprising 279 (48.8%) males and 293 (51.2%) females were screened. One hundred and fifty -one (26.4%) were underweight while 4.5% had abnormal urinalysis [urobilinogen (34.6%) and proteinuria (26.9%)]. Pre—hypertension was present in 7.9% and Stage 1 hypertension in 1.7%. Systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with high BMI. Age and abnormal urinalysis (proteinuria) were also associated with and predicted elevated blood pressure.
Conclusion: Elevated blood pressure is associated with abnormal urinalysis; both conditions are identifiable risk factors for kidney diseases in our environment. We therefore advocate inclusion of periodic blood pressure checks and urinalysis included in the school health program.
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