Pattern of Doppler Ultrasonographic Scan Requests and Findings: A 3-Year Study


  • A A Olatunji
  • O Odusan


Deep Vein Thrombosis, Diabetic Foot Syndrome, Doppler technique, Peripheral vascular disease, Ultrasound scan.


Introduction: Doppler ultrasonography is a radiological investigative tool which is relatively new in developing countries, Nigeria inclusive.

Objective: To describe the clinical indications, the pattern of requests and findings of Doppler ultrasonographic studies in a tertiary health facility in Sagamu, Nigeria. This is a preliminary report of a spanning June 2007 to July 2010 and highlighting the

Methods: This initial report covered the period between June 2007 and July 2010. The subjects consisted of patients who were referred for Doppler Ultrasonography from public and private health facilities in Sagamu. The ultrasound scan was carried out using a Siemens's Sonoline G-40® Ultrasound Machine. The features recorded included the waveforms, peak velocities, pathologic features such as plaques, irregular pools of blood and the relative absence of flow as well as the lack of Doppler signals.

Results: There were 42 patients comprising 29 (69%) males and 13 (31%) females, aged 16-78 years, with a mean age of 53 ± 15.5 years. The subjects were matched for age (p = 0.9). The clinical indications for Doppler ultrasound studies included Diabetes Foot Syndrome (DFS), Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT), peripheral arterial disease, and leg swellings. Minor indications included oedema, gunshot wound, nephritic syndrome, supraclavicular tumour and varicose veins. The Doppler ultrasound findings were confirmatory of the clinical diagnosis of DVT in 5/8 (62.5%) and 5/23 (21.7%) in DFS patients.

Conclusion: Doppler ultrasound confirmed a higher proportion of DVT compared to DFS. 

Author Biographies

A A Olatunji

Department of Radiology,
Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences,
Olabisi Onabanjo University,
P. M. B 2002, Sagamu,
Ogun State, Nigeria.
Telephone: +2348056715826

O Odusan

Department of Radiology,
Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences,
Olabisi Onabanjo University,
P. M. B 2002, Sagamu,
Ogun State, Nigeria.


Ledwidge M, Winter T, Del Prince B. Doppler and Color Flow Principles in Clinical Sonography-A Practical Guide. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2007: 24-32.

Tomkowski WZ, Davidson BL, Wisniewska J, Malek G, Kober J, Kuca P, et al. Accuracy of compression ultrasound in screening for deep venous thrombosis in acutely ill medical patients. Thromb Heamost 2007; 97(2): 191-194.

Perrin M. Surgery for deep venous reflux in the lower limb. J Mal Vasc 2004; 29(2): 73-87.

McDicken WN, Hoskins PR. Physics: principles, practice and artefacts in Clinical Doppler Ultrasound. 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 2006: 1-25.

Chalazonitis AN, Condilis N, Tzovara J, Ptohis N, Laspas F, Neofytou I, et al. Lower limb veins color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography examination. An examination protocol. Ann Ital Chir 2008; 79(4): 273-280.

Gaitini D. Current approaches and controversial issues in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis via duplex Doppler ultrasound. J Clin Ultrasound 2006; 34(6): 289-297.

Grenier N, Douws C, Freyburger G, Basseau F, Perot V, Cimpean A. Imaging of the lower limb veins: when and how? J Radiol 2004; 85(6 Pt 2): 886-898.

Taniguchi N, Ono T, Itoh K. The ultrasound examination of the deep vein thrombosis. Rhinsho Byori 2003; 51(8): 761-769.

Cina A, Pedicceli A, Di Stasi C, Porcelli A, Fiorentino A, Cina G, et al. Color –Doppler sonography in chronic venous insufficiency : what the radiologist should know. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2005; 34(2): 51-62.

Pascarella L, Al-Tuwaijri M, Bergan JJ, Mekenas LM. Lower extremity superficial venous aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg 2005; 19(1): 69-73.

Brown JM, Schwartz LB, Olive D, Lange R, Laufer N, Taylor KJ. Evaluation of Doppler ultrasonography as a means of monitoring in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer cycles: preliminary results and findings. J Ultrasound Med 1997; 16(6): 411-416.

Kim ED, Lipshultz LI. Role of ultrasound in the assessment of male infertility. J Clin Ultrasound 1996; 24(8): 437-453.

Olatunbosun ST, Bella AF. Relationship between height, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in an urban African black adult population: a case for the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis? J Natl Med Asso 2000; 92(6): 265-268.

Dahiru T, Jibo A, Hassan AA, Mande AT. Prevalence of diabetes in a semi-urban community in Northern Nigeria. Niger J Med 2008; 17(4): 414-416.

Oghagbon EK, Okesina AB, Biliaminu SA. Prevalence of hypertension and associated variables in paid workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2008; 11(4): 342-346.

IDF Diabetes Atlas. 4th Edition. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation. 2009.

Zimmermann A, Reeps C, Hartl F, Ockert S, Eckstein HH. The diabetic foot. Chirurg 2009; 80(5): 430-436.

Useche JU, Fernandez de-Castro AM, Galvis GE, Mantilla RA, Ariza A. Use of US in the Evaluation of patients with deep venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremities. Radiographics 2008; 28: 1785-1797.

Chan-Wilde C, Lim WE. Diagnoses of deep vein thrombosis by Duplex Doppler ultrasound imaging at the Singapore General Hospital. Singapore Med J 1995; 36(1): 56-59.

Yetkin U, Gurbuz A. Post-traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of the brachial artery and its surgical treatment. Tex Heart Inst J 2003; 30(4): 293-297.

Salcuni M, Fiorentino P, Pedicelli A, Di Stasi C. Diagnostic imaging in deep vein thrombosis of the limbs. Rays 1996; 21(3): 328-339.







Most read articles by the same author(s)