An ecological study of the factors associated with childhood tuberculosis in Nigeria

  • Olusoji James Daniel Olabisi Onabanjo University
  • Olusola Adedeji Adejumo Lagos State University
  • Kolawole Sunday Oritogun Olabisi Onabanjo university
  • Ebunoluwa Olatunbosun Jaiyesimi Olabisi Onabanjo University
  • Temitope Ladi-Akinyemi University of Lagos
  • Olubukunola A Jeminusi Olabisi Onabanjo University
Keywords: Childhood, Ecological study, HIV, Tuberculosis, Nigeria


Background: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) account for about 6% of the global TB burden, but there is a paucity of data on childhood TB at the national and state level in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Objective: To assess the childhood TB case notification rates and explore associated factors at the state level in Nigeria.

Methods: A retrospective ecological study was carried out to determine the childhood TB case notification rates in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in Nigeria. TB data was retrieved from the National TB and Leprosy Control Programme (NTBLCP) 2014 Annual Report using a proforma. The association between TB case notification rate at the state level and the six selected explanatory variables (Human Development Index, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG] coverage, percentage underweight, HIV positivity rate, mean household size and population density) were carried out using negative binomial regression in R statistical software.

Results: A total of 91, 353 TB patients were notified to the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2014 by the NTBLCP. Of these, 5463 (6%) were children aged 0-14 years. The childhood TB notification rate was 6.99/100,000 population. The highest childhood TB case notification rate was recorded in Nasarawa State followed by Lagos and Oyo States. There were significant associations between childhood TB case notification rate and HIV positivity rate, percentage underweight, household size, population density and BCG coverage.

Conclusion: The study showed that childhood TB case notification rate in Nigeria was low. TB case notification rate was associated with high HIV rate, percentage underweight, household size, population density and BCG coverage. There is the urgent need to address the associated risk factors to effectively control childhood TB in Nigeria.



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