Cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome: A study of the prevalence and level of awareness of related risk factors among school teachers in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria

  • Adeseye A Akintunde Department of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
  • Wahab A Saka
  • Deborah B Adeniyi
  • Afolabi A Salawu
  • Oladimeji G Opadijo
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors, Hyperlipidaemia, Metabolic syndrome, Teachers, Nigeria


Background: The overall health of school teachers is closely related to the performance of children in school and life generally.

Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome among school teachers in Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Methods: Two hundred secondary school teachers were randomly selected from all the secondary schools in the two local Governments in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Relevant laboratory investigations and electrocardiography were performed. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonising the Metabolic Syndrome Criteria.

Results: Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified among 44(22.0%) of study participants. It was more common among females 33(28.2%) compared to males 11(13.3%) [p = 0.002]. The prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: visceral obesity 108(54.0%), low HDL 105(52.5%), hypertension 58 (29.0%), BP > 130/85 mmHg, 76(38.0%), impaired fasting blood glucose 49(24.5%) and hypertriglyceridaemia 14(7.0%). Only a small fraction (39; 19.5%) demonstrated good level of knowledge about the cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors were common among school teachers in Ogbomoso, south-west Nigeria in addition to a low level of awareness and poor control of the risk factors.


Bansilal S, Castellano JM, Fuster V. Global burden of CVD: focus on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Int J Cardiol 2015; 201(Suppl. 1): S1-S7.

Writing Committee, Smith SC Jr., Chen D, Chen D, Collins A, Harold JG, Jessup M, et al. Moving from political declaration to action on reducing the global burden of cardiovascular diseases: a statement from the global cardiovascular disease task force. Glob Heart 2013; 8(4): 383-386.

Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Cowie CC, Eberhardts MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in US Adults. The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 518-524.

Altman R, de Ybarra JN, Villablanca AC. Community-based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention to reduce Cardiometabolic Risk inLatina Women: A Pilot Program. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2014; 23(4): 350-357

Scheuch K, Haufe E, Seibt R. Teachers Health. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2015; 112(20): 347-356.

Akintunde AA, Akintunde TS, Opadijo OG. Knowledge of heart disease risk factors among workers in a Nigerian University: a call for concern. Niger Med J 2015; 56(2): 91-95.

Familoni IF, Familoni OB. Determinants and perception of cardiovascular risk factors among secondary school teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci 2011; 40(4): 339-343.

Mensah GA, Roth GA, Sampson UK, Moran AE, Feigin VL, Furouzanfar MH, et al. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013. Cardiovasc J Afr 2015; 26(2 Suppl 1): S6-S10.

Ansa VO, Oyo-Ita A, Essien OE. Perception of ischaemic heart disease, knowledge of and attitude to reduction of its risk factors. East Afr Med J 2007; 84(7): 318-323.

Akpan MU, Ikpeme EE, Utuk EO. Teachers‘ knowledge and attitude towards seizure disorder: a comparative study of urban and rural school teachers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract 2013; 16(3): 365-370.

Ofovwe GE, Ofili AN. Knowledge, attitude and practice of school health programme among head teachers of primary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med 2007; 6(3): 99-103.

Akintunde AA, Ayodele OE, Akinwusi PO, Opadijo OG. Metabolic syndrome: a comparison of occurrence using three definitions in hypertensive patients. Clin Med Res. 2011; 9(1): 26-31.

Isezuo SA. The metabolic syndrome: Review of current concepts. Niger Postgrad Med J 2006; 13(3): 247-255.

Akintunde A, Ayodele O, Akinwusi P, Peter J, Opadijo O. Metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed non-diabetic hypertensive Nigerians: prevalence and clinical correlates. SA J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2010; 7: 107-110.

Oguoma VM, Nwose EU, Richards RS. Prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome in Nigeria: a systematic review. Public Health 2015; 129: 413-423.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr., et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289(19): 2560-2572.

James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eight Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA 2014; 311(5): 507-520.

Wagner J, Lacey K, Chyun D, Abbott G. Development of a questionnaire to measure heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes: the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire. Patient Educ Couns. 2005; 58(1): 82-87.

NCEP. Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143-3421.

Greiw ASH, Gad Z, Mandil A, Wagdi M, Elneihoum A. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among school teachers in Benghazi, Libya. Ibnosima J Med Biomed Sci 2010; 2(4): 168-77.

Akinlua JT, Meakin R, Umar AM, Freemantle N. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review. PLoS One 2015; 10(10): e0140021.

Laurence EC, Volmink J, Esterhuizen TM, Dalal S, Holmes MD. Risk of cardiovascular disease among teachers in Cape Town: Findings of the South African PaCT pilot study. S Afr Med J 2016; 106(10): 996-1001.

Deianov KH, Khadzhiolova I, Mincheva L. Chronic occupational stress and the cardiovascular risk in teachers. ProblKhig 1995; 20: 81-90.

Deyanov C, Hadjiolova I, Mincheva L. Prevalence of arterial hypertension among school teachers in Sofia. Rev Environ Health 1994; 10(1): 47-50.

Awosan KJ, Ibrahim MTO, Sabir AA, Ejimodu P. Awareness and prevalence of risk factors of coronary heart disease among teachers and bankers in Sokoto, Nigeria. J Med Med Sci 2013; 4(9): 337-342.

Udell JA, Steg PG, Scirica BM, Eagle KA, Ohman EM, Goto S, et al. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, or both and cardiovascular risk in outpatients with or at risk for atherothrombosis. Eur J Prev Cardio 2014; 21(12): 1531-1540.

Ardern CI, Janssen I. metabolic syndrome and its association with morbidity and mortality. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2007; 32(1): 33-45.

Nalado AM, Musa BM, Gezawa ID, Muhammad H, Ibrahim DA, Uloko AE. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among apparently healthy adults in a rural community, in North Western Nigeria. Niger J Med 2015; 24(4): 323-330.

Oladapo OO, Salako L, Sodiq O, Shoyinka K, adedapo K, Falase AO. A prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among a rural Yoruba south western Nigerian population: a population – based survey. Cardiovasc J Afr 2010; 21(1): 26-31.

Adeoye AM, Adewoye IA, Dairo PM, Adebiyi A, Lackland DT, Ogedegbe G, et al. Excess Metabolic Syndrome Risks Among Women Health Workers Compared to Men. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2015; 17(11): 880-884.

Katholi RE, Couri DM. Left ventricular hypertrophy: Major Risk Factor in Patients with hypertension: Update and Practical Clinical Applications. Int J Hypertens 2011; 2011: 495349.

Akintunde AA, Oyedeji AA, Familoni OB, Ayodele OE, Opadijo OG. QT interval prolongation and dispersion: Epidemiology and clinical correlates in subjects with newly diagnosed systemic hypertension in Nigeria. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2012; 3(4): 290-295.