Annals of Health Research <p>Peer-reviewed open access journal of medical and health-related sciences to disseminate research works and ideas in the fields of clinical sciences, basic medical sciences and public health with the ultimate goals of enhancing knowledge, improving practice and encouraging practice-centred research. It is indexed by African Index Medicus and the African Journals Online. It is also registered with the Crossref, Committee for Publication Ethics (COPE) and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ).</p> <p><em><strong>This journal is published under the Creative Commons License Attribution Non-Commercial CC-BY NC. This license lets others remix, tweak and build upon our works non-commercially and although, their new works must also acknowledge us and be non-commercial, they do not have to license their derivative works on the same terms.</strong></em></p> Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria, OOU Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria en-US Annals of Health Research 2476-8642 <p>The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.</p> Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Among Nigerian Medical Doctors <p><strong>Background: </strong>Since its discovery in late 2019, COVID-19 has claimed approximately three million lives worldwide, causing a significant economic burden and strain on health care delivery and services. Therefore, the COVID-19 vaccine may offer the potential to promote global recovery.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerian doctors and the factors influencing the acceptance.</p> <p><strong>Methods: Using </strong>a cross-sectional design, an anonymous online survey was administered to medical doctors across the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria between 13 January and 31 January 2021, using the health belief model (HBM).</p> <p><strong>Results: Out of </strong>830 respondents, 38.8% were willing to take the COVID-19 vaccine, 36.0% were unsure, while the remaining 26.5% refused to take the vaccine. Following adjustments, males were more likely to take the vaccine (OR = 3.357; 95% CI 2.009-5.610; p = 0.0001), whereas increasing age, higher perceived viral virulence and perceived viral infectivity were observed to be significantly associated with less likelihood of accepting the vaccine. Respondents who believed in the efficacy of ivermectin were much less likely to receive the vaccine (OR = 0.217; 95% CI 0.108-0.436; p = 0.001). Concerns on vaccination safety were the main barriers to vaccine acceptability. Hypothetically addressing these concerns increased vaccine acceptance rates by approximately a third (34.6%) (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The proposed nationwide distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine may be met with poor vaccine acceptability among Nigerian medical practitioners. Measures specifically addressing vaccine safety concerns should be provided to allay fears and enhance the acceptability of the vaccine.</p> CA Nri-Ezedi C Okechukwu OC Ofiaeli E Nwaneli S Musa I Kida H Adetola TO Ulasi Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 1 12 10.30442/ahr.0801-01-152 Ovarian and uterine functions in female albino rats fed dietary meal supplemented with Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. seed powder <p><strong>Background</strong>: While the reproduction-enhancing property of <em>Mucuna pruriens</em> (MP) seed has been widely studied in males, little is known about this property in females despite the rate at which the seed is consumed by both sexes worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the effect of <em>MP</em> seed powder in dietary inclusion on ovarian and uterine functions of adult female albino rats.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The rats were randomised into four groups. Group 1 (Control) was given standard rat chow (15g of feed/rat/day only) while groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed diets supplemented with MP seed powder at 0.75 g, 1.5g and 2.25g/day, respectively, for 12 weeks. Serum levels of oestradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, ovarian Δ5, 3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Δ5, 3β-HSD) and 17 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activities, ovarian and uterine peroxidase and tissue cytoarchitectural structures were used as diagnostic markers of reproductive function.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Significant increases in the serum level of all hormones including ovarian Δ5, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD activities, ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities, and improvement of the ovarian and uterine cytoarchitectural integrity of the rats fed <em>MP</em> at 0.75g/day compared to other groups were observed. However, <em>MP</em> at 2.25g/day induced reproductive dysfunction characterised by significant reductions in hormones, uterine and ovarian enzyme activities, severe degenerative cytoarchitectural lesions in tissues.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: <em>MP</em> seed improves uterine and ovarian functions at a dose level of 0.75g/day, but a higher dose value may be toxic.</p> Joseph Ashidi Folarin Ojo Owagboriaye Olubukola Ireti Lawal Peter John Houghton Thomas Efferth Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 13 27 10.30442/ahr.0801-02-153 Knowledge of COVID-19, Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Other Safety Practices of Healthcare Workers in Southwest Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Healthcare workers have a higher risk of SARS CoV2 infection with implications for transmission of infection and the safety of workers and patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess knowledge on COVID-19 and the safety practices among selected healthcare workers in southwest Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study of 210 workers providing direct care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted. Respondents were recruited through simple random sampling of members of online platforms of healthcare workers in Osun, Ondo and Ekiti States. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of PPE and safety practices was obtained through a close-ended questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the respondents was 36.5±7.5 years. About 29% and 30% of respondents were from the State and Federal Government-owned Teaching Hospitals, respectively. A little above half (58.1%) had good knowledge of COVID-19, while 62.1% used PPE always when attending to suspected COVID19 cases. More than half (53.8%) had been trained on infection prevention and control (IPC), but only 34.3% adhered to good safety practices. Healthcare workers in State government-owned teaching hospitals had lower odds of good safety practices than those in Federal Teaching Hospitals (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.19-0.93, p = 0.031).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The knowledge of appropriate PPE and practice of safety precautions among healthcare workers is sub-optimal. This may predispose to increased COVID-19 transmission among healthcare workers, patients, and their families. Training and retraining healthcare workers, especially those from hospitals identified by the study as having poor safety practices, should be encouraged.</p> Temitope OJo Olusola Fajobi Adefunke Babatola Morenike Akinolosotu Oluwaseun Esan Tajudin Adetunji Adedeji Onayade Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 28 39 10.30442/ahr.0801-03-154 Alterations in Haematological and Clotting Profile of Post-Menopausal Women in Benin City, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>The cessation of ovarian functions at menopause and the accompanying decline in the production of ovarian steroid hormones creates a unique set of health concerns for women. Reductions in sex steroid levels, particularly oestrogen, have been associated with various diseases and conditions, including bleeding disorders, coronary heart disease (CHD), osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, urinary incontinence, hot flushes, and mood changes, among others.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine changes in haemorheological and clotting profile in post-menopausal women.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Two hundred participants comprising one hundred and fifty post-menopausal women and fifty healthy pre-menopausal control subjects were studied. The investigations carried out include whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen concentration, Prothrombin time (PT), Activated partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (APTTK) levels and complete blood count using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age (p = 0.01), platelet count (p = 0.013), neutrophil (p = 0.03), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.045) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.044) in postmenopausal women were significantly higher while lymphocyte count (p = 0.004) was significantly lower in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women. Similarly, plasma oestradiol (p = 0.001), plasma viscosity (p = 0.03), relative blood viscosity (p = 0.03), whole blood viscosity (p = 0.03) and PTTK (p = 0.04) were significantly lower among postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal control subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Relative plasma viscosity correlated positively with age. There were significantly lower levels of haemorheological and clotting profile in post-menopausal women. These changes may be due to age or a decline in circulating oestrogen levels.</p> Mabel Iyobo Ebengho Progress A Obazelu Mathias Abiodun Emokpae Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 40 48 10.30442/ahr.0801-04-155 Carotid Doppler Ultrasonography in Patients with Co-existing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> The co-existence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) has been rising globally with subclinical atherosclerotic complications. These vascular changes can be detected using carotid ultrasonography.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine and compare the carotid arterial structural wall changes and blood flow velocities of adults with co-existing DM and HTN with age- and sex-matched non-diabetic, non-hypertensive controls.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional comparative study of 300 participants comprising 200 adults with co-existing DM and HTN and 100 age- and sex-matched controls was done. Their carotid arteries were examined bilaterally for plaques, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and flow velocities – peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) using 4–12MHz linear array transducer. Visceral obesity and serum lipids were also assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the subjects was 56.13 ± 6.93 years; they comprised 38% males and 62% females. The subjects’ CIMT was statistically significantly higher (<em>p </em>= 0.001) with a three-fold mean increase (45.5%) compared to the controls (13.7%). Lower flow velocities but higher indices were also observed in the subjects. Strong and significant correlations were observed between EDV and PI (r =-0.663, <em>p</em> =&gt;0.001), EDV and RI (r = -0.661, <em>p</em> =&gt;0.001) and PI and RI (r =0.988, <em>p</em> = &gt;0.001) among the subjects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Significant reduction in flow velocities with increased CIMT may be an early indication of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therefore, carotid ultrasonography should be mandatory in individuals at risk for early detection and possible prevention of atherosclerotic complications.</p> Abiola Omobonike Adekoya Ayodeji Anike Olatunji Adeyanju Racheal Akinola Olatunde Odunsan Adesola Olubunmi Adekoya Olatunbosun Olawale Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 49 62 10.30442/ahr.0801-05-156 Dietary Habits, Physical Activity and Sleep Pattern Among In-School Adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> Overnutrition has been documented at epidemic levels in children and adults. The associated risk factors may include poor dietary habits, sedentary behaviour, inadequate sleep and low parental education.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To describe dietary habits, physical activity and sleep patterns among secondary school adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study of 1,120 adolescents recruited from public and private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria, was carried out to study the dietary habits, sleep patterns and physical activity in relation to nutritional status.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Ten per cent of the adolescents skipped breakfast, while 28% had fruits on up to five days of the week. Eleven per cent had a sweetened drink every day, while 20 % had a sweetened drink on most days of the week. One out of four (26%) adolescents had more than two hours of screen time daily, and only 5% engaged in sporting activities up to five times weekly. One-third of the students slept for less than six hours daily and experienced sleeping difficulties. Multivariate analysis showed that females were twice as likely not to participate in sports (OR = 2.38, CI = 1.3-4.37, p = 0.002 and to have a higher intake of confectionaries (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.07-2.04, p = 0.01.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Poor dietary habits, inadequate physical activity and insufficient sleep were observed among secondary school adolescents. A multi-pronged approach to improve these behaviours is recommended.</p> Ibironke Akinola Babatunde ODUGBEMI Omowunmi BAKARE Olatunde ODUSOTE Fidelis NJOKANMA Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 63 73 10.30442/ahr.0801-06-157 Spindle Cell Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Lungs in a Nigerian Woman: A Case Report <p>Spindle cell sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung is a very rare but highly aggressive tumour. The presentation is usually non-specific and can be confused with bronchogenic carcinoma, even on imaging. Tissue biopsy, with histology and immunohistochemistry, is very helpful in diagnosing and differentiating sarcomatoid cell cancer from bronchogenic carcinoma. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, and if it is not possible, palliative chemotherapy may be an option. This report is about a rare case of spindle cell sarcomatoid sarcoma of the left lung in a flight attendant who presented with left-sided, dull aching chest pain, associated shortness of breath, and cough that was occasionally productive, haemoptysis and weight loss of one-month duration. The tissue biopsy with histology and immunohistochemistry supported the clinical diagnosis of the tumour. Although rare, spindle cell sarcomas may occur in very few patients. The clinical history, imaging and pathologic findings are essential in preventing misdiagnosis of these patients.</p> Oluwafemi Ojo Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 74 80 10.30442/ahr.0801-07-158 Acute Uterine Inversion Complicating Mid-Trimester Unsafe Abortion in a Teenage Nigerian Girl <p>Uterine inversion is a rare but life-threatening obstetric emergency, complicating 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 50,000 deliveries. Very rarely, this condition also complicates unsafe abortion. A case of acute complete (fourth-degree) uterine inversion, with gangrene of the uterus in an 18-year-old nulliparous girl who presented to the Gynaecologic Emergency Unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, in hypovolemic shock from massive haemorrhage following unsafe mid-trimester termination of unwanted pregnancy is reported. She was adequately resuscitated, and a vaginal hysterectomy was performed. The patient was discharged following an uneventful postoperative period. This case highlights the consequences of the high unmet need for family planning and the restrictive abortion laws in Nigeria, limiting access to effective contraception and safe abortion services, thereby increasing the risk of maternal mortality and morbidity from complications of unsafe abortion</p> Solomon Nyeche Akaninyene Eseme Ubom Copyright (c) 2022 Annals of Health Research 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 8 1 81 87 10.30442/ahr.0801-08-159