Effect of exercise on basal insulin levels in normoglycaemic offspring of patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus
Background: Low basal insulin level is a risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a result of altered insulin sensitivity pattern. However, it is uncertain if exercise may influence the occurrence of T2DM in the offspring of diabetic parents.
Objective: To assess the effect of exercise on basal insulin levels in the offspring of T2DM parents compared with the offspring of non-diabetic parents.
Design: The participants were assigned into four groups using a convenience sampling method; 27 Normal-weight Offspring of Non-Diabetic Parents (NONDP), 21 Normal-weight Offspring of Diabetic Parents (NODP), 26 Overweight Offspring of Non-Diabetic Parents (OONDP) and 21 Overweight Offspring of Diabetic Parents (OODP). Each participant followed a protocol of graded exercise using ''tummy trimmer'' everyday spending 30-45 minutes daily for 24 weeks. Blood samples were obtained after overnight fasting for determination of insulin level using standard methods (immunoassay technique) at baseline, six weeks, 12 weeks, 18 weeks and 24 weeks respectively.
Results: There were 23/42 males (54.8%) in the study groups and 34/51 females (64.2%) in the control groups. Thirty-one (58.7%) in the control group and 24 (57.1%) in the study group were aged 21-30 years. An increase in insulin levels was recorded at 12 weeks in all groups except in NONDP where the insulin levels decreased. The insulin level change was highest in the NODP (2.25ng/ml) group.
Conclusions: Graded exercise improved insulin levels in all test groups. The clinical importance of graded exercise in the prevention of diabetes mellitus among the offspring of diabetic parents may be promising.
Bacha F, Lee S, Gungor N, Arslanian S. From pre-diabetes to Type 2 diabetes in obese youth: pathophysiological characteristics along the spectrum of glucose dysregulation. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 2225-2231.
Chimen M, Kennedy A, Nirantharakumar K, Pang TT, Andrews R, Narendran P. What are the health benefits of physical activity in Type 1 diabetes mellitus? A literature review. Diabetologia 2012 55: 542–551.
Hood T, Lalantha L. Basal insulin delivery reduction for exercise in Type 1 diabetes: finding the sweet spot. Diabetologia 2016; 59: 1628-1631.
Thorell A, Hirshman MF, Nygren J, Jorfeldt I, Wojtasewski JF, Dufresne SD, et al. Exercise and insulin cause GLUT-4 translocation in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol1999; 277: E733–E741.
Taiwo EO, Akindele RA, Adefuye BO, Sofola OA, Fasanmade AA, Oyebola DDO, et al. Total Cholesterol and HDL ratio in normoglycaemic offspring of patients with T2DM on graded exercise. World J Pharm Med Res 2017; 3(10): 30-35.
Rönnemaa T, Koivisto VA. Combined effect of exercise and ambient temperature on insulin absorption and postprandial glycemia in Type 1 patients. Diabetes Care 1988; 11: 769–773.
Marliss EB, Vranic M. Intense exercise has unique effects on both insulin release and its roles in glucoregulation: implications for diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51(Suppl 1): S271-S83.
Skleryk JR, Karagounis LG, Hawley JA, Sharman MJ, Laursen PB. Two weeks of reduced-volume sprint interval or traditional exercise training does not improve metabolic functioning in sedentary obese men. Diabetes Obes Metab 2013; 15: 1146–1153.
Conn VS, Koopman RJ, Ruppar TM, Phillips LJ, Mehr DR, Hafdhal AR. Insulin sensitivity following exercise interventions: systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes among healthy adults. J Prim Care Comm Health 2014; 27: 211–222.
Grieco CR, Swain DP, Colberg SR, Dowling EA, Baskette K, Zarrabi I, et al. Effect of intensity of aerobic training on insulin sensitivity/resistance in recreationally active adults. J Strength Cond Res 2013; 27: 2270–2276.
Chen CN, Chuang LM, Korivi M, Wu YT. Home-based exercise may not decrease insulin resistance in individuals with metabolic syndrome. J Phys Act Health 2015; 12: 74–79.
Malin SK, Haus JM, Solomon TP, Blaszczak A, Kashyap SR, Kirwan JP. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin-resistant phenotypes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2013; 305: E1292–E129.
Copyright (c) 2019 Annals of Health Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The articles and other materials published in the Annals of Health Research are protected by the Nigerian Copyright laws. The journal owns the copyright over every article, scientific and intellectual materials published in it. However, the journal grants all authors, users and researchers access to the materials published in the journal with the permission to copy, use and distribute the materials contained therein only for academic, scientific and non-commercial purposes.